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Br J Cancer. Jun 1999; 80(8): 1245–1251.
PMCID: PMC2362366
Cisplatin anti-tumour potentiation by tirapazamine results from a hypoxia-dependent cellular sensitization to cisplatin
M S Kovacs,1 D J Hocking,1 J W Evans,1 B G Siim,1 B G Wouters,1 and J M Brown1
1Cancer Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Radiation Oncology, GK103, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA
Present address: Department of Pathology, University of Auckland School of Medicine, Auckland, New Zealand.
Received October 20, 1998; Revised December 17, 1998; Accepted December 18, 1998.
Tirapazamine (TPZ) is a new anticancer drug that is activated specifically at the low oxygen level typically found in solid tumours. It exhibits preferential cytotoxicity towards hypoxic cells and has been shown in preclinical studies with transplanted tumours and in phase II and III clinical trials to potentiate the anti-tumour efficacy of cisplatin without increasing its systemic toxicity. At present, the mechanism for this potentiation is unknown. Here we show that there is a schedule-dependent enhancement of cisplatin cytotoxicity by TPZ for cells in vitro that is similar to that seen with transplanted murine tumours. This cisplatin potentiation depends on the TPZ exposure being at oxygen concentrations below 1%, which are typical of many cells in tumours but not in normal tissues. Also, the interaction between TPZ and cisplatin does not occur in cells mutant in ERCC4, a protein essential for repair of DNA interstrand cross-links. Incubation of the cells with TPZ under hypoxia prior to cisplatin treatment increases cisplatin-induced DNA interstrand cross-links with kinetics suggesting that TPZ inhibits or delays repair of the DNA cross-links. In conclusion, we show that the tumour-specific potentiation of cisplatin cytotoxicity is likely the result of an interaction between TPZ and cisplatin at the cellular level that requires the low oxygen levels typical of those in solid tumours. The mechanism of the interaction appears to be through a potentiation of cisplatin-induced DNA interstrand cross-links, possibly as a result of a diminished or delayed repair of these lesions © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
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