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An isolate from H2S-rich layers of the Solar Lake, the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica, exhibits both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. It can use Na2S as an electron donor for CO2 photoassimilation (photosystem I supplies the energy) in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or 700-nm light. A stoichiometric ratio of approximately 2 is observed between the Na2S consumed and the photoassimilated CO2. The anoxygenic phototrophic capability of this cyanobacterium explains its growth in nature in high sulfide concentrations and indicates a selective advantage.