Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjThe BMJ

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (498K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • HILL AB. Medical ethics and controlled trials. Br Med J. 1963 Apr 20;1(5337):1043–1049. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Collier J. Confusion over use of placebos in clinical trials. BMJ. 1995 Sep 30;311(7009):821–822. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones B, Jarvis P, Lewis JA, Ebbutt AF. Trials to assess equivalence: the importance of rigorous methods. BMJ. 1996 Jul 6;313(7048):36–39. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turner JA, Deyo RA, Loeser JD, Von Korff M, Fordyce WE. The importance of placebo effects in pain treatment and research. JAMA. 1994 May 25;271(20):1609–1614. [PubMed]
  • Rothman KJ, Michels KB. The continuing unethical use of placebo controls. N Engl J Med. 1994 Aug 11;331(6):394–398. [PubMed]
  • Freedman B. Equipoise and the ethics of clinical research. N Engl J Med. 1987 Jul 16;317(3):141–145. [PubMed]

Articles from The BMJ are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group