OBJECTIVES--To assess further the relation in Intersalt of 24 hour urinary sodium to blood pressure of individuals and populations, and the difference in blood pressure from young adulthood into middle age. DESIGN--Standardised cross sectional study within and across populations. SETTING--52 population samples in 32 countries. SUBJECTS--10,074 men and women aged 20-59. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Association of sodium and blood pressure from within population and cross population multiple linear regression analyses with multivariate correction for regression dilution bias. Relation of sample median daily urinary sodium excretion to difference in blood pressure with age. RESULTS--In within population analyses (n = 10,074), individual 24 hour urinary sodium excretion higher by 100 mmol (for example, 170 v 70 mmol) was associated with systolic/diastolic blood pressure higher on average by 3/0 to 6/3 mm Hg (with and without body mass in analyses). Associations were larger at ages 40-59. In cross population analyses (n = 52), sample median 24 hour sodium excretion higher by 100 mmol was associated with median systolic/diastolic pressure higher on average by 5-7/2-4 mm Hg, and estimated mean difference in systolic/diastolic pressure at age 55 compared with age 25 greater by 10-11/6 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS--The strong, positive association of urinary sodium with systolic pressure of individuals concurs with Intersalt cross population findings and results of other studies. Higher urinary sodium is also associated with substantially greater differences in blood pressure in middle age compared with young adulthood. These results support recommendations for reduction of high salt intake in populations for prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels.