Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjLink to Publisher's site
BMJ. 1996 February 10; 312(7027): 357–364.
PMCID: PMC2350276

A rational approach to the management of hepatitis C infection.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Dusheiko G, Simmonds P. Sequence variability of hepatitis C virus and its clinical relevance. J Viral Hepat. 1994;1(1):3–15. [PubMed]
  • Simmonds P, Alberti A, Alter HJ, Bonino F, Bradley DW, Brechot C, Brouwer JT, Chan SW, Chayama K, Chen DS, et al. A proposed system for the nomenclature of hepatitis C viral genotypes. Hepatology. 1994 May;19(5):1321–1324. [PubMed]
  • Lesniewski R, Okasinski G, Carrick R, Van Sant C, Desai S, Johnson R, Scheffel J, Moore B, Mushahwar I. Antibody to hepatitis C virus second envelope (HCV-E2) glycoprotein: a new marker of HCV infection closely associated with viremia. J Med Virol. 1995 Apr;45(4):415–422. [PubMed]
  • Ferrari C, Valli A, Galati L, Penna A, Scaccaglia P, Giuberti T, Schianchi C, Missale G, Marin MG, Fiaccadori F. T-cell response to structural and nonstructural hepatitis C virus antigens in persistent and self-limited hepatitis C virus infections. Hepatology. 1994 Feb;19(2):286–295. [PubMed]
  • Sawada M, Takada A, Takase S, Takada N. Effects of alcohol on the replication of hepatitis C virus. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl. 1993;1B:85–90. [PubMed]
  • Miyakawa H, Sato C, Izumi N, Tazawa J, Ebata A, Hattori K, Sakai H, Ikeda T, Hirata R, Sakai Y, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in alcoholic liver cirrhosis in Japan: its contribution to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl. 1993;1A:85–90. [PubMed]
  • el Gohary A, Hassan A, Nooman Z, Lavanchy D, Mayerat C, el Ayat A, Fawaz N, Gobran F, Ahmed M, Kawano F, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus among urban and rural population groups in Egypt. Acta Trop. 1995 May;59(2):155–161. [PubMed]
  • Dusheiko GM, Smith M, Scheuer PJ. Hepatitis C virus transmitted by human bite. Lancet. 1990 Aug 25;336(8713):503–504. [PubMed]
  • Eyster ME, Alter HJ, Aledort LM, Quan S, Hatzakis A, Goedert JJ. Heterosexual co-transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ann Intern Med. 1991 Nov 15;115(10):764–768. [PubMed]
  • Zanetti AR, Tanzi E, Paccagnini S, Principi N, Pizzocolo G, Caccamo ML, D'Amico E, Cambiè G, Vecchi L. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Lombardy Study Group on Vertical HCV Transmission. Lancet. 1995 Feb 4;345(8945):289–291. [PubMed]
  • Thaler MM, Park CK, Landers DV, Wara DW, Houghton M, Veereman-Wauters G, Sweet RL, Han JH. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus. Lancet. 1991 Jul 6;338(8758):17–18. [PubMed]
  • Lenzi M, Johnson PJ, McFarlane IG, Ballardini G, Smith HM, McFarlane BM, Bridger C, Vergani D, Bianchi FB, Williams R. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus in autoimmune liver disease: evidence for geographical heterogeneity. Lancet. 1991 Aug 3;338(8762):277–280. [PubMed]
  • García-Buey L, García-Monzón C, Rodriguez S, Borque MJ, García-Sánchez A, Iglesias R, DeCastro M, Mateos FG, Vicario JL, Balas A, et al. Latent autoimmune hepatitis triggered during interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 1995 Jun;108(6):1770–1777. [PubMed]
  • Davis GL, Balart LA, Schiff ER, Lindsay K, Bodenheimer HC, Jr, Perrillo RP, Carey W, Jacobson IM, Payne J, Dienstag JL, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with recombinant interferon alfa. A multicenter randomized, controlled trial. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. N Engl J Med. 1989 Nov 30;321(22):1501–1506. [PubMed]
  • Di Bisceglie AM, Martin P, Kassianides C, Lisker-Melman M, Murray L, Waggoner J, Goodman Z, Banks SM, Hoofnagle JH. Recombinant interferon alfa therapy for chronic hepatitis C. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 1989 Nov 30;321(22):1506–1510. [PubMed]
  • Lok AS, Lai CL, Leung EK. Interferon antibodies may negate the antiviral effects of recombinant alpha-interferon treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology. 1990 Dec;12(6):1266–1270. [PubMed]
  • Mayet WJ, Hess G, Gerken G, Rossol S, Voth R, Manns M, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH. Treatment of chronic type B hepatitis with recombinant alpha-interferon induces autoantibodies not specific for autoimmune chronic hepatitis. Hepatology. 1989 Jul;10(1):24–28. [PubMed]
  • Renault PF, Hoofnagle JH. Side effects of alpha interferon. Semin Liver Dis. 1989 Nov;9(4):273–277. [PubMed]
  • Shindo M, Arai K, Sokawa Y, Okuno T. Hepatic hepatitis C virus RNA as a predictor of a long-term response to interferon-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1995 Apr 15;122(8):586–591. [PubMed]
  • Orito E, Mizokami M, Suzuki K, Ohba K, Ohno T, Mori M, Hayashi K, Kato K, Iino S, Lau JY. Loss of serum HCV RNA at week 4 of interferon-alpha therapy is associated with more favorable long-term response in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Med Virol. 1995 Jun;46(2):109–115. [PubMed]
  • Kanai K, Kako M, Aikawa T, Kumada T, Kawasaki T, Hatahara T, Oka Y, Mizokami M, Sakai T, Iwata K, et al. HCV RNA monitoring for tailored regimens of interferon therapy in hepatitis C. Biomed Pharmacother. 1995;49(2):65–67. [PubMed]
  • Reichard O, Foberg U, Frydén A, Mattsson L, Norkrans G, Sönnerborg A, Wejstål R, Yun ZB, Weiland O. High sustained response rate and clearance of viremia in chronic hepatitis C after treatment with interferon-alpha 2b for 60 weeks. Hepatology. 1994 Feb;19(2):280–285. [PubMed]
  • Yamada G, Takahashi M, Tsuji T, Yoshizawa H, Okamoto H. Quantitative HCV RNA and effect of interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Dig Dis Sci. 1992 Dec;37(12):1926–1927. [PubMed]
  • Suzuki T, Tanaka E, Matsumoto A, Urushihara A, Sodeyama T. Usefulness of simple assays for serum concentration of hepatitis C virus RNA and HCV genotype in predicting the response of patients with chronic hepatitis C to interferon alpha 2a therapy. J Med Virol. 1995 Jun;46(2):162–168. [PubMed]
  • Chemello L, Bonetti P, Cavalletto L, Talato F, Donadon V, Casarin P, Belussi F, Frezza M, Noventa F, Pontisso P, et al. Randomized trial comparing three different regimens of alpha-2a-interferon in chronic hepatitis C. The TriVeneto Viral Hepatitis Group. Hepatology. 1995 Sep;22(3):700–706. [PubMed]
  • Enomoto N, Sakuma I, Asahina Y, Kurosaki M, Murakami T, Yamamoto C, Ogura Y, Izumi N, Marumo F, Sato C. Mutations in the nonstructural protein 5A gene and response to interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus 1b infection. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jan 11;334(2):77–81. [PubMed]
  • Poynard T, Bedossa P, Chevallier M, Mathurin P, Lemonnier C, Trepo C, Couzigou P, Payen JL, Sajus M, Costa JM. A comparison of three interferon alfa-2b regimens for the long-term treatment of chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Multicenter Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Jun 1;332(22):1457–1462. [PubMed]
  • Nishiguchi S, Kuroki T, Nakatani S, Morimoto H, Takeda T, Nakajima S, Shiomi S, Seki S, Kobayashi K, Otani S. Randomised trial of effects of interferon-alpha on incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic active hepatitis C with cirrhosis. Lancet. 1995 Oct 21;346(8982):1051–1055. [PubMed]
  • Fernandez H, Banks G, Smith R. Ribavirin: a clinical overview. Eur J Epidemiol. 1986 Mar;2(1):1–14. [PubMed]
  • Brillanti S, Garson J, Foli M, Whitby K, Deaville R, Masci C, Miglioli M, Barbara L. A pilot study of combination therapy with ribavirin plus interferon alfa for interferon alfa-resistant chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 1994 Sep;107(3):812–817. [PubMed]
  • Attili AF, Rusticali A, Varriale M, Carli L, Repice AM, Callea F. The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on serum enzymes and liver histology in patients with chronic active hepatitis. A 12-month double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hepatol. 1994 Mar;20(3):315–320. [PubMed]
  • Takano S, Ito Y, Yokosuka O, Ohto M, Uchiumi K, Hirota K, Omata M. A multicenter randomized controlled dose study of ursodeoxycholic acid for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 1994 Sep;20(3):558–564. [PubMed]
  • Beloqui O, Prieto J, Suárez M, Gil B, Qian CH, García N, Civeira MP. N-acetyl cysteine enhances the response to interferon-alpha in chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study. J Interferon Res. 1993 Aug;13(4):279–282. [PubMed]
  • Van Thiel DH, Friedlander L, Fagiuoli S, Wright HI, Irish W, Gavaler JS. Response to interferon alpha therapy is influenced by the iron content of the liver. J Hepatol. 1994 Mar;20(3):410–415. [PubMed]
  • Girelli CM, Mirata C, Lesinigo E, Casiraghi A. Iron overload and response to alpha-interferon in chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995 Jan;90(1):170–171. [PubMed]
  • Clemente MG, Congia M, Lai ME, Lilliu F, Lampis R, Frau F, Frau MR, Faa G, Diana G, Dessì C, et al. Effect of iron overload on the response to recombinant interferon-alfa treatment in transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia major and chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr. 1994 Jul;125(1):123–128. [PubMed]
  • Hayashi H, Takikawa T, Nishimura N, Yano M, Isomura T, Sakamoto N. Improvement of serum aminotransferase levels after phlebotomy in patients with chronic active hepatitis C and excess hepatic iron. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994 Jul;89(7):986–988. [PubMed]
  • Di Bisceglie AM, Axiotis CA, Hoofnagle JH, Bacon BR. Measurements of iron status in patients with chronic hepatitis. Gastroenterology. 1992 Jun;102(6):2108–2113. [PubMed]

Articles from BMJ : British Medical Journal are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group