We describe a new minichromosome maintenance factor, Mcm10, and show that this essential protein is involved in the initiation of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mcm10 mutant has an autonomously replicating sequence-specific minichromosome maintenance defect and arrests at the nonpermissive temperature with dumbbell morphology and 2C DNA content. Mcm10 is a nuclear protein that physically interacts with several members of the MCM2-7 family of DNA replication initiation factors. Cloning and sequencing of the MCM10 gene show that it is identical to DNA43, a gene identified independently for its putative role in replicating DNA. Two-dimensional DNA gel analysis reveals that the mcm10-1 lesion causes a dramatic reduction in DNA replication initiation at chromosomal origins, including ORI1 and ORI121. Interestingly, the mcm10-1 lesion also causes replication forks to pause during elongation through these same loci. This novel phenotype suggests a unique role for the Mcm10 protein in the initiation of DNA synthesis at replication origins.