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We previously described IQGAP1 as a human protein related to a putative Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP) from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here we report the identification of a liver-specific human protein that is 62% identical to IQGAP1. Like IQGAP1, the novel IQGAP2 protein harbors an N-terminal calponin homology motif which functions as an F-actin binding domain in members of the spectrin, filamin, and fimbrin families. Both IQGAPs also harbor several copies of a novel 50- to 55-amino-acid repeat, a single WW domain, and four IQ motifs and have 25% sequence identity with almost the entire S. pombe sar1 RasGAP homolog. As predicted by the presence of IQ motifs, IQGAP2 binds calmodulin. However, neither full-length nor truncated IQGAP2 stimulated the GTPase activity of Ras or its close relatives. Instead, IQGAP2 binds Cdc42 and Racl but not RhoA. This interaction involves the C-terminal half of IQGAP2 and appears to be independent of the nucleotide binding status of the GTPases. Although IQGAP2 shows no GAP activity towards Cdc42 and Rac1, the protein did inhibit both the intrinsic and RhoGAP-stimulated GTP hydrolysis rates of Cdc42 and Rac1, suggesting an alternative mechanism via which IQGAPs might modulate signaling by these GTPases. Since IQGAPs harbor a potential actin binding domain, they could play roles in the Cdc42 and Rac1 controlled generation of specific actin structures.