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LYL1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that was originally discovered because of its translocation into the beta T-cell receptor locus in an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. LYL1 is expressed in many hematolymphoid cells, with the notable exceptions of thymocytes and T cells. Using the yeast two-hybrid system to screen a cDNA library constructed from B cells, we identified the E-box-binding proteins E12 and E47 as potential lymphoid dimerization partners for LYL1. The interaction of LYL1 with E2a proteins was further characterized in vitro and shown to require the HLH motifs of both proteins. Immunoprecipitation analyses showed that in T-ALL and other cell lines, endogenous LYL1 exists in a complex with E2a proteins. A preferred DNA-binding sequence, 5'-AACAGATG(T/g)T-3', for the LYL1-E2a heterodimer was determined by PCR-assisted site selection. Endogenous protein complexes containing both LYL1 and E2a bound this sequence in various LYL1-expressing cell lines and could distinguish between the LYL1 consensus and muE2 sites. These data demonstrate that E2a proteins serve as dimerization partners for the basic HLH protein LYL1 to form complexes with distinctive DNA-binding properties and support the hypothesis that the leukemic properties of the LYL1 and TAL subfamily of HLH proteins could be mediated by recognition of a common set of target genes as heterodimeric complexes with class I HLH proteins.