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The overexpression of some human proteins can cause interference with the Ras signal transduction pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The functional block is located at the level of the effector itself, since these proteins do not suppress activating mutations further downstream in the same pathway. We now demonstrate, with in vivo and in vitro experiments, that the protein encoded by one human cDNA (clone 99) can interact directly with yeast Ras2p and with human H-Ras protein, and we have named this gene rin1 (Ras interaction/interference). The interaction between Ras and Rin1 is enhanced when Ras is bound to GTP. Rin1 is not able to interact with either an effector mutant or a dominant negative mutant of H-Ras. Thus, Rin1 displays a human H-Ras interaction profile that is the same as that seen for Raf1 and yeast adenylyl cyclase, two known effectors of Ras. Moreover, Raf1 directly competes with Rin1 for binding to H-Ras in vitro. Unlike Raf1, however, the Rin1 protein resides primarily at the plasma membrane, where H-Ras is localized. These data are consistent with Rin1 functioning in mammalian cells as an effector or regulator of H-Ras.