Survey responses showed three distinct facility profiles. As expected, virtually all of the residential units reported that they were directly funded by the state (1 facility reported no funding source), while jails reported receiving both county or city funding (92.1%) and state funding administered by the locality (82.9%). Community corrections agencies had an even greater mix of funding, as 55.7% reported some state support, 44.3% reported they received state funds administered locally, and 63.1% had direct county or city funding (respondents could report multiple funding sources). The average daily population in the residential facilities was 180.8 (median = 98) youth, as compared to 33.4 (median = 30) in the juvenile jails and 278.3 (median = 85) youth in the community corrections facilities. The proportion of staff in clinical positions was greatest in the residential facilities, where they accounted for 30.3% of all staff compared to 25.3% in CC facilities and just 7.6% in the jails. This same pattern was evident when the number of clinical staff was compared to the facility census. The ratio of clinical staff to youth was 2 to 10 in the residential facilities, as compared to approximately 1 to 10 youth in the CC facilities and .8 staff to 10 youth in the jails/detention centers.
3.1. Correctional Services
In addition to detailed data on substance abuse services, the survey gathered prevalence, access, and duration information on other types of correctional programs that are found in both adult and juvenile justice settings. shows the five most prevalent programs reported across all juvenile facilities in the sample. Other programs assessed in the survey include boot camps, which were in 8.9% of the facilities, and day reporting and work release programs, which were in less than 3% of the facilities (data not shown in table). As expected, educational programs were most common, and overall the number of youth estimated to attend these programs on any given day (106,325 nationally, using the weighted data) were more than three times the number attending the next most prevalent program (29,277, in intensive supervision programs). Although vocational services and therapeutic programs for sex offenders were fairly common (in 36.5% and 44.2% of the facilities, respectively), these were small programs accessed by only a few youth in most facilities.
Prevalence of Correctional Services and Programs
Further inspection of reveals that the low access figures reported in the “all facilities” column (represented by the percentage of the average daily population, or ADP attending the program) is dominated by the results reported by probation, parole, and other community corrections offices. The proportion of CC facilities offering any of the five programs compares favorably with prevalence data from the residential facilities and jails; however with the exception of educational programs, 7.5% or fewer CC youth participate in four of these programs. And while there are more CC youth attending education programs than youth in the other groups, these 45,272 juveniles represent only 22.9% of all youth in CC facilities offering educational programming. Intensive supervision programs, which involve increased monitoring and frequent contacts with supervision officers, have more participants than any program outside of education, but still serve just 7.5% of all youth and this same percentage of CC youth on a given day. The ADP attendance figures show relatively high access to education programs in residential facilities and jails (where the median figure of 100% indicates that half or more of directors in facilities that provided these services reported that all youth in their facility received education/GED services on a typical day). However, when data from all facility types are viewed in the aggregate, it is evident that youth in custody have very limited access to other kinds of correctional programs provided by juvenile justice agencies.
The pattern of service provision in the residential facilities and jails generally followed expectations. Because minor youth are mandated to attend school, nearly all the residential facilities and 62.6% of the jails provided education programs and virtually all youth in these facilities access these programs on a daily basis. In interpreting the relatively high “percent of ADP” figure for some programs in residential facilities (educational and intensive supervision) and jails (vocational and educational), it is important to note this is a median figure that applies only to those facilities reporting the service. Thus, while all the youth in at least half of the jail facilities that provide vocational services attend the program on any given day, only 17.3% of all the jails provide this well-attended service. Two-thirds of the residential facilities provide a vocational program, and in half of these facilities, the program is attended by 40% of the daily facility census (i.e., in half of the facilities more than 40% attend, and in the other half less than 40% attend). Only 7.7% of the residential facilities provide transitional housing, and the program is only accessed on average by 12.5% of the ADP in these facilities. The 17.9% prevalence and 100% ADP median for intensive supervision in the residential facilities was higher than expected and may be attributable to some respondents interpreting this survey item literally, rather than its conventional referent (to intensive supervision probation or parole, which involves increased monitoring and more onerous reporting requirements for youth in CC settings).
3.2. Substance Abuse Treatment and Related Services
The survey assessed the same kinds of prevalence, access, and duration data on a range of substance abuse services and treatment programs (see ). As expected, the least intensive service models were widely reported by respondents, with three-quarters of all facilities providing drug and alcohol education. Questions about case management were also in this section of the survey, and while only 21.2% of all facilities provided case management (including a surprisingly low 27.4% of the CC facilities), 94.4% of youth in CC facilities that provided case management were in the program, and the total estimate of 43,883 attendees was second only to the number in drug and alcohol education. Mirroring ongoing surveys of the national treatment delivery network (SAMHSA, 2004), the survey found that the most common treatment modality for juvenile offenders was brief (1–4 hours) weekly substance abuse group counseling. About 40% of all facilities provided this standard weekly “outpatient” treatment and 21.3% provided the equivalent of intensive outpatient treatment (5–25 hours weekly). As with the correctional programs, the aggregate access data showed that both of these modalities were available only to small numbers of juveniles, with 13.6% of the average daily population attending outpatient counseling and less than 1% attending intensive outpatient on a typical day. At 18%, the reported prevalence of therapeutic community (TC) treatment was larger than expected. In the substance abuse treatment literature, and as intended in the survey, TCs are a distinct modality involving intensive, behaviorally-oriented long-term residential treatment for drug-dependent clients. The TC figure in the Facility Directors survey may be inflated because some respondents interpreted the term literally, or sought to present a positive view of their facility as providing a therapeutic environment for youth.
Prevalence of Substance Abuse Services
Differences observed in the correctional services data between the three facility types were also evident in the substance abuse services findings. Both prevalence and access to services was highest in residential facilities. Additional analyses showed that 66.4% of the residential facilities offered at least one of the three primary treatment modalities (1–4 hours/week counseling, 5–25 hours/week counseling or TC treatment), compared to 55.7% of the CC facilities and 19.7% of the jails. Residential facilities also had the highest proportion of programs that met the 90-day duration criterion. Just under two-thirds of the outpatient counseling programs in these facilities had lengths of stay of 90 days or more, while less than 20% of the jail outpatient programs were of this length (it was not possible to calculate and report continuous duration figures since these survey questions used a categorical format, i.e., less than 90 days, 90–180 days, etc.). The high caseloads of the CC facilities again dwarfed the number of youth attending treatment in these offices, yielding very low access figures for the CC group.
3.3. Screening, Assessment, and Other Services
The Juvenile Facility Directors survey included a series of questions about the extent to which various screening, assessment, and other specialized services were provided to facility youth, either directly or through a referral made by facility staff. Detailed questions were asked about use of standardized substance abuse, mental health, and risk assessment tools. Just under half (47.6%) of the facilities reported using a standardized substance abuse tool, and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI–A or SASSI-A2) was by far the most common tool, used in about half of the residential facilities (50.5%) and somewhat fewer jails (44.6%) and CC facilities (38.1%). The more comprehensive Addiction Severity Index (and companion tools for adolescents) was used in 16.5% of all facilities and about one-fourth (26.1%) of the CCs. Use of standardized mental health assessments was reported by 36% of the residential facilities and small numbers of CC facilities (13.5%) and jails (7%). Risk assessment is the standard means for determining levels of supervision in community corrections settings, so it was expected that CC facilities would report higher rates of use of these tools (36.0%) than residential (15.1%) or jail (8.0%) facilities. Nonetheless, the finding that almost two-thirds of the CC facilities did not report using any standardized risk assessment instruments was not anticipated. The rates of use of standardized family assessment instruments was similarly surprisingly low, at just 6.7% overall and a high of 7.5% in CC facilities.
On more general queries, respondents indicated the proportion of youth that were provided the service along a five-point scale ranging from “none” to “all.” To simplify presentation of these prevalence data (see ), the responses were assigned quartile values of 0 to 100%. Given the diversity of practices represented in these data, it is notable that across all facilities their use ranges only 30 to 40 percentage points, generally between 20 and 60%. TB screening, which was provided to 56.1% of youth in all facilities, and physical health services (58.6%) were the most frequently reported somatic health services assessed in the survey. Similar proportions of youth were administered mental health assessments across all facilities (62.3%), while assessment for co-occurring disorders was conducted on less than half (44.1%) the youth. Across all facilities, mental health counseling was provided to 52.5% of the youth, and nearly as many youth (45 to 50%) were reportedly provided various kinds of behavioral development interventions involving communication, social and cognitive skills, and anger management. As was found with reported use of family assessment instruments, family counseling was provided at lower rates, averaging 40.9% of youth across all facilities.
Percent of Youth Provided Various Services
The provision patterns among facilities for these services differ somewhat from those presented previously. While intensive and long-term correctional and substance abuse services appear largely limited to residential facilities, several of the services listed in are common to jails as well as residential facilities. TB screening and physical health services were provided in jails at nearly the same high rates observed in the residential facilities. Just under three-fourths of youth in jails were administered mental health assessments, and assessments for co-occurring disorders and mental health counseling were provided to more than half the youth in jails. Similar proportions of the jail youth (54.3% to 73.3%) were provided the various behavioral and skill interventions assessed in the survey. The comparatively high rates of service provision reported by the jail facilities on these survey questions are comparable to the more detailed jail results for educational services and drug and alcohol education, suggesting that the counseling services assessed here (for mental health and co-occurring disorders, life skills, social skills, anger management, etc.) may be provided to large groups of youth in classroom-like settings.
Other than mental health assessment, which was provided to 51.2% of youth in the community corrections facilities, no service was provided to more than half of the CC youth. The same services that were prevalent in the institutional facilities were most frequently reported by CC respondents, but at roughly half the rate, ranging generally from 30% to 40%.
3.4. Continuity of Care and Reentry Services
Practices aimed at fostering juvenile offenders’ reintegration in the community after release from incarceration are critical correctional service components. The survey assessed the frequency with which facilities provided reentry services to youth with substance abuse problems using the same five-point response scale described above. For reporting purposes the “none” to “all” responses were again assigned quartile values of 0 to 100%. About half (51%) of substance abusing youth in residential facilities were provided with a referral to a community-based treatment provider at discharge, while 31.2% of jail youth with substance abuse problems were given a referral. The residential facilities further reported that they also arranged for a post-release appointment with a community-based program with over half of their substance abusing residents (55.1%), while appointments were made for just 24.5% of youth leaving jails. Contact with a community-based treatment provider prior to release was reported for high levels of substance abusing youth in both residential facilities (88.1%) and jails (86.2%).
CC facility respondents were instructed to answer this series of questions in terms of the frequency with which youth with substance abuse problems appear to have received these transitional services upon their entry to the community corrections office. Consistent with the responses from the residential facilities, CC respondents reported that 47.1% of youth entering the CC facility came with a community-based treatment referral. CC respondents, however reported low rates of pre-release contacts between youth and treatment representatives or parole or probation officers. This likely reflects these respondents’ knowledge about youth contacts with specific treatment staff and probation/parole staff with which they are familiar. Residential and jail respondents likely report higher rates because they are including contacts with any community-based providers and institution-based probation/parole staff that meet with youth in their facilities.