PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
 
J Cell Biol. 1991 November 2; 115(4): 919–931.
PMCID: PMC2289954

Compartmentalization within the nucleus: discovery of a novel subnuclear region

Abstract

Antibodies to a set of structurally related autoantigens (p23-25) bind to a previously uncharacterized, large structural domain in the nucleus of a variety of human cell types. This subnuclear domain is visible by phase contrast alone as a region of decreased density after several different fixation protocols. The morphology of this region changes dramatically during the cell cycle and we have given it the name PIKA (for polymorphic interphase karyosomal association) based on preliminary evidence that the PIKA proteins may be associated with chromatin. The function of the PIKA is not yet known, but our immunolocalization data indicate that it is unlikely to be associated with regions of ongoing DNA replication, heterogeneous nuclear RNA storage, or mRNA processing. The discovery of the PIKA provides evidence supporting an emerging model of nuclear structure. It now appears that the nucleus is organized into distinct domains which include not only the nucleolus, but also previously unidentified regions such as the PIKAs. Furthermore, structural rearrangements undergone by the nucleolus and the PIKAs may be indicative of a broad tendency for nuclear organization to change in a cell cycle-specific fashion.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.6M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adachi Y, Käs E, Laemmli UK. Preferential, cooperative binding of DNA topoisomerase II to scaffold-associated regions. EMBO J. 1989 Dec 20;8(13):3997–4006. [PubMed]
  • Ascoli CA, Maul GG. Identification of a novel nuclear domain. J Cell Biol. 1991 Mar;112(5):785–795. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berezney R, Coffey DS. Nuclear protein matrix: association with newly synthesized DNA. Science. 1975 Jul 25;189(4199):291–293. [PubMed]
  • Berezney R, Coffey DS. Nuclear matrix. Isolation and characterization of a framework structure from rat liver nuclei. J Cell Biol. 1977 Jun;73(3):616–637. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bravo R, Frank R, Blundell PA, Macdonald-Bravo H. Cyclin/PCNA is the auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase-delta. Nature. 1987 Apr 2;326(6112):515–517. [PubMed]
  • Cook PR. The nucleoskeleton: artefact, passive framework or active site? J Cell Sci. 1988 May;90(Pt 1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Cooke CA, Bernat RL, Earnshaw WC. CENP-B: a major human centromere protein located beneath the kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 1990 May;110(5):1475–1488. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cox JV, Schenk EA, Olmsted JB. Human anticentromere antibodies: distribution, characterization of antigens, and effect on microtubule organization. Cell. 1983 Nov;35(1):331–339. [PubMed]
  • Dreyfuss G. Structure and function of nuclear and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1986;2:459–498. [PubMed]
  • Dupuy-Coin AM, Bouteille M. Developmental pathway of granular and beaded nuclear bodies from nucleoli. J Ultrastruct Res. 1972 Jul;40(1):55–67. [PubMed]
  • Earnshaw WC, Rothfield N. Identification of a family of human centromere proteins using autoimmune sera from patients with scleroderma. Chromosoma. 1985;91(3-4):313–321. [PubMed]
  • Earnshaw WC, Halligan N, Cooke C, Rothfield N. The kinetochore is part of the metaphase chromosome scaffold. J Cell Biol. 1984 Jan;98(1):352–357. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Earnshaw WC, Sullivan KF, Machlin PS, Cooke CA, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD, Rothfield NF, Cleveland DW. Molecular cloning of cDNA for CENP-B, the major human centromere autoantigen. J Cell Biol. 1987 Apr;104(4):817–829. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fakan S. Structural support for RNA synthesis in the cell nucleus. Methods Achiev Exp Pathol. 1986;12:105–140. [PubMed]
  • Fu XD, Maniatis T. Factor required for mammalian spliceosome assembly is localized to discrete regions in the nucleus. Nature. 1990 Feb 1;343(6257):437–441. [PubMed]
  • Fusconi M, Cassani F, Govoni M, Caselli A, Farabegoli F, Lenzi M, Ballardini G, Zauli D, Bianchi FB. Anti-nuclear antibodies of primary biliary cirrhosis recognize 78-92-kD and 96-100-kD proteins of nuclear bodies. Clin Exp Immunol. 1991 Feb;83(2):291–297. [PubMed]
  • Guldner HH, Lakomek HJ, Bautz FA. Human anti-centromere sera recognise a 19.5 kD non-histone chromosomal protein from HeLa cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 1984 Oct;58(1):13–20. [PubMed]
  • Haaf T, Schmid M. Chromosome topology in mammalian interphase nuclei. Exp Cell Res. 1991 Feb;192(2):325–332. [PubMed]
  • Kaufmann SH, Fields AP, Shaper JH. The nuclear matrix: current concepts and unanswered questions. Methods Achiev Exp Pathol. 1986;12:141–171. [PubMed]
  • Lerner EA, Lerner MR, Janeway CA, Jr, Steitz JA. Monoclonal antibodies to nucleic acid-containing cellular constituents: probes for molecular biology and autoimmune disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 May;78(5):2737–2741. [PubMed]
  • Lerner MR, Steitz JA. Antibodies to small nuclear RNAs complexed with proteins are produced by patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Nov;76(11):5495–5499. [PubMed]
  • Lindell TJ, Weinberg F, Morris PW, Roeder RG, Rutter WJ. Specific inhibition of nuclear RNA polymerase II by alpha-amanitin. Science. 1970 Oct 23;170(3956):447–449. [PubMed]
  • Long BH, Huang CY, Pogo AO. Isolation and characterization of the nuclear matrix in Friend erythroleukemia cells: chromatin and hnRNA interactions with the nuclear matrix. Cell. 1979 Dec;18(4):1079–1090. [PubMed]
  • Lothstein L, Arenstorf HP, Chung SY, Walker BW, Wooley JC, LeStourgeon WM. General organization of protein in HeLa 40S nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. J Cell Biol. 1985 May;100(5):1570–1581. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Manuelidis L, Borden J. Reproducible compartmentalization of individual chromosome domains in human CNS cells revealed by in situ hybridization and three-dimensional reconstruction. Chromosoma. 1988;96(6):397–410. [PubMed]
  • Mirkovitch J, Mirault ME, Laemmli UK. Organization of the higher-order chromatin loop: specific DNA attachment sites on nuclear scaffold. Cell. 1984 Nov;39(1):223–232. [PubMed]
  • Monneron A, Bernhard W. Fine structural organization of the interphase nucleus in some mammalian cells. J Ultrastruct Res. 1969 May;27(3):266–288. [PubMed]
  • Moroi Y, Peebles C, Fritzler MJ, Steigerwald J, Tan EM. Autoantibody to centromere (kinetochore) in scleroderma sera. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Mar;77(3):1627–1631. [PubMed]
  • Nyman U, Hallman H, Hadlaczky G, Pettersson I, Sharp G, Ringertz NR. Intranuclear localization of snRNP antigens. J Cell Biol. 1986 Jan;102(1):137–144. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pardoll DM, Vogelstein B, Coffey DS. A fixed site of DNA replication in eucaryotic cells. Cell. 1980 Feb;19(2):527–536. [PubMed]
  • Pettersson I, Hinterberger M, Mimori T, Gottlieb E, Steitz JA. The structure of mammalian small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Identification of multiple protein components reactive with anti-(U1)ribonucleoprotein and anti-Sm autoantibodies. J Biol Chem. 1984 May 10;259(9):5907–5914. [PubMed]
  • Pinkel D, Landegent J, Collins C, Fuscoe J, Segraves R, Lucas J, Gray J. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with human chromosome-specific libraries: detection of trisomy 21 and translocations of chromosome 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(23):9138–9142. [PubMed]
  • Piñol-Roma S, Swanson MS, Gall JG, Dreyfuss G. A novel heterogeneous nuclear RNP protein with a unique distribution on nascent transcripts. J Cell Biol. 1989 Dec;109(6 Pt 1):2575–2587. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Prelich G, Tan CK, Kostura M, Mathews MB, So AG, Downey KM, Stillman B. Functional identity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a DNA polymerase-delta auxiliary protein. Nature. 1987 Apr 2;326(6112):517–520. [PubMed]
  • Raska I, Andrade LE, Ochs RL, Chan EK, Chang CM, Roos G, Tan EM. Immunological and ultrastructural studies of the nuclear coiled body with autoimmune antibodies. Exp Cell Res. 1991 Jul;195(1):27–37. [PubMed]
  • Spector DL. Higher order nuclear organization: three-dimensional distribution of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan;87(1):147–151. [PubMed]
  • Spindler KR, Rosser DS, Berk AJ. Analysis of adenovirus transforming proteins from early regions 1A and 1B with antisera to inducible fusion antigens produced in Escherichia coli. J Virol. 1984 Jan;49(1):132–141. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vagner-Capodano AM, Bouteille M, Stahl A, Lissitzky S. Nucleolar ribonucleoprotein release into the nucleoplasm as nuclear bodies in cultured thyrotropin-stimulated thyroid cells: autoradiographic kinetics. J Ultrastruct Res. 1982 Jan;78(1):13–25. [PubMed]
  • van Eekelen CA, van Venrooij WJ. hnRNA and its attachment to a nuclear protein matrix. J Cell Biol. 1981 Mar;88(3):554–563. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vogelstein B, Pardoll DM, Coffey DS. Supercoiled loops and eucaryotic DNA replicaton. Cell. 1980 Nov;22(1 Pt 1):79–85. [PubMed]
  • Yang VW, Lerner MR, Steitz JA, Flint SJ. A small nuclear ribonucleoprotein is required for splicing of adenoviral early RNA sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Mar;78(3):1371–1375. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press