Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. 1991 October 1; 115(1): 257–266.
PMCID: PMC2289928

Molecular cloning and expression of the cDNA for alpha 3 subunit of human alpha 3 beta 1 (VLA-3), an integrin receptor for fibronectin, laminin, and collagen


alpha 3 beta 1 (VLA-3), a member of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors, may function as a receptor for fibronectin, laminin, and collagen. A partial cDNA clone (2.4 kb) for the human alpha 3 subunit was selected from an endothelial cell lambda gt11 cDNA library by specific antibody screening. Several overlapping cDNA clones were subsequently obtained, of a total length of 4.6 kb from various cDNA libraries. The reconstructed alpha 3 cDNA was expressed on the surface of chinese hamster ovary cells as detected by an alpha 3- specific mAb after transfection, suggesting that the cDNA is authentic. Within this sequence was an open reading frame, encoding for 1,051 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 32 residues, a long extracellular domain (959 residues), a transmembrane domain (28 residues), and a short cytoplasmic segment (32 residues). Overall, the alpha 3 amino acid sequence was 25-37% similar to the other integrin alpha subunits that are cleaved, with most similarity to the alpha 6 sequence (37%), and less similarity to those alpha subunits that have I domains (15-20%, excluding the I domain sequence itself). Features most like those in other alpha subunits are (a) the positions of 18/19 cysteine residues, (b) three potential metal binding domains of the general structure DX(D/N)X(D/N)GXXD, and (c) the predicted transmembrane domain. The mass of alpha 3 calculated from its amino acid sequence is 113,505. The human alpha 3 sequence was 89% identical to hamster galactoprotein b3, and 70% similar to the chicken CSAT antigen band 2 protein partial sequence, suggesting that these two polypeptides are homologues of human alpha 3.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.2M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Akiyama SK, Nagata K, Yamada KM. Cell surface receptors for extracellular matrix components. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Feb 28;1031(1):91–110. [PubMed]
  • Albelda SM, Daise M, Levine EM, Buck CA. Identification and characterization of cell-substratum adhesion receptors on cultured human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jun;83(6):1992–2002. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Argraves WS, Suzuki S, Arai H, Thompson K, Pierschbacher MD, Ruoslahti E. Amino acid sequence of the human fibronectin receptor. J Cell Biol. 1987 Sep;105(3):1183–1190. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Corbi AL, Miller LJ, O'Connor K, Larson RS, Springer TA. cDNA cloning and complete primary structure of the alpha subunit of a leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein, p150,95. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 20;6(13):4023–4028. [PubMed]
  • Corbi AL, Kishimoto TK, Miller LJ, Springer TA. The human leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein Mac-1 (complement receptor type 3, CD11b) alpha subunit. Cloning, primary structure, and relation to the integrins, von Willebrand factor and factor B. J Biol Chem. 1988 Sep 5;263(25):12403–12411. [PubMed]
  • Dedhar S, Saulnier R. Alterations in integrin receptor expression on chemically transformed human cells: specific enhancement of laminin and collagen receptor complexes. J Cell Biol. 1990 Feb;110(2):481–489. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Devereux J, Haeberli P, Smithies O. A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 11;12(1 Pt 1):387–395. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elices MJ, Urry LA, Hemler ME. Receptor functions for the integrin VLA-3: fibronectin, collagen, and laminin binding are differentially influenced by Arg-Gly-Asp peptide and by divalent cations. J Cell Biol. 1991 Jan;112(1):169–181. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fingerman E, Hemler ME. Regulation of proteins in the VLA cell substrate adhesion family: influence of cell growth conditions on VLA-1, VLA-2, and VLA-3 expression. Exp Cell Res. 1988 Jul;177(1):132–142. [PubMed]
  • Fitzgerald LA, Poncz M, Steiner B, Rall SC, Jr, Bennett JS, Phillips DR. Comparison of cDNA-derived protein sequences of the human fibronectin and vitronectin receptor alpha-subunits and platelet glycoprotein IIb. Biochemistry. 1987 Dec 15;26(25):8158–8165. [PubMed]
  • Fradet Y, Cordon-Cardo C, Thomson T, Daly ME, Whitmore WF, Jr, Lloyd KO, Melamed MR, Old LJ. Cell surface antigens of human bladder cancer defined by mouse monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jan;81(1):224–228. [PubMed]
  • Gehlsen KR, Dickerson K, Argraves WS, Engvall E, Ruoslahti E. Subunit structure of a laminin-binding integrin and localization of its binding site on laminin. J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15;264(32):19034–19038. [PubMed]
  • Gehlsen KR, Dillner L, Engvall E, Ruoslahti E. The human laminin receptor is a member of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. Science. 1988 Sep 2;241(4870):1228–1229. [PubMed]
  • Hall DE, Reichardt LF, Crowley E, Holley B, Moezzi H, Sonnenberg A, Damsky CH. The alpha 1/beta 1 and alpha 6/beta 1 integrin heterodimers mediate cell attachment to distinct sites on laminin. J Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;110(6):2175–2184. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heino J, Ignotz RA, Hemler ME, Crouse C, Massagué J. Regulation of cell adhesion receptors by transforming growth factor-beta. Concomitant regulation of integrins that share a common beta 1 subunit. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 5;264(1):380–388. [PubMed]
  • Heino J, Massagué J. Transforming growth factor-beta switches the pattern of integrins expressed in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells and causes a selective loss of cell adhesion to laminin. J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 25;264(36):21806–21811. [PubMed]
  • Hemler ME. VLA proteins in the integrin family: structures, functions, and their role on leukocytes. Annu Rev Immunol. 1990;8:365–400. [PubMed]
  • Hemler ME, Huang C, Schwarz L. The VLA protein family. Characterization of five distinct cell surface heterodimers each with a common 130,000 molecular weight beta subunit. J Biol Chem. 1987 Mar 5;262(7):3300–3309. [PubMed]
  • Brown NH, King DL, Wilcox M, Kafatos FC. Developmentally regulated alternative splicing of Drosophila integrin PS2 alpha transcripts. Cell. 1989 Oct 6;59(1):185–195. [PubMed]
  • Carter WG, Wayner EA, Bouchard TS, Kaur P. The role of integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1 in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion of human epidermal cells. J Cell Biol. 1990 Apr;110(4):1387–1404. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hynes RO. Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors. Cell. 1987 Feb 27;48(4):549–554. [PubMed]
  • Hynes RO, Marcantonio EE, Stepp MA, Urry LA, Yee GH. Integrin heterodimer and receptor complexity in avian and mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;109(1):409–420. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ignatius MJ, Large TH, Houde M, Tawil JW, Barton A, Esch F, Carbonetto S, Reichardt LF. Molecular cloning of the rat integrin alpha 1-subunit: a receptor for laminin and collagen. J Cell Biol. 1990 Aug;111(2):709–720. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kantor RR, Bander NH, Finstad CL, Graf LH, Jr, Lloyd KO, Old LJ, Albino AP. DNA-mediated gene transfer of a human cell surface 170-kilodalton glycoprotein. Evidence for association with an endogenous murine protein. J Biol Chem. 1987 Nov 5;262(31):15166–15171. [PubMed]
  • Kaufmann R, Frösch D, Westphal C, Weber L, Klein CE. Integrin VLA-3: ultrastructural localization at cell-cell contact sites of human cell cultures. J Cell Biol. 1989 Oct;109(4 Pt 1):1807–1815. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Larson RS, Corbi AL, Berman L, Springer T. Primary structure of the leukocyte function-associated molecule-1 alpha subunit: an integrin with an embedded domain defining a protein superfamily. J Cell Biol. 1989 Feb;108(2):703–712. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morhenn VB, Schreiber AB, Soriero O, McMillan W, Allison AC. A monoclonal antibody against basal cells of human epidermis. Potential use in the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. J Clin Invest. 1985 Nov;76(5):1978–1983. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peltonen J, Larjava H, Jaakkola S, Gralnick H, Akiyama SK, Yamada SS, Yamada KM, Uitto J. Localization of integrin receptors for fibronectin, collagen, and laminin in human skin. Variable expression in basal and squamous cell carcinomas. J Clin Invest. 1989 Dec;84(6):1916–1923. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pignatelli M, Smith ME, Bodmer WF. Low expression of collagen receptors in moderate and poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinomas. Br J Cancer. 1990 Apr;61(4):636–638. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Plantefaber LC, Hynes RO. Changes in integrin receptors on oncogenically transformed cells. Cell. 1989 Jan 27;56(2):281–290. [PubMed]
  • Poncz M, Eisman R, Heidenreich R, Silver SM, Vilaire G, Surrey S, Schwartz E, Bennett JS. Structure of the platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb. Homology to the alpha subunits of the vitronectin and fibronectin membrane receptors. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jun 25;262(18):8476–8482. [PubMed]
  • Pytela R. Amino acid sequence of the murine Mac-1 alpha chain reveals homology with the integrin family and an additional domain related to von Willebrand factor. EMBO J. 1988 May;7(5):1371–1378. [PubMed]
  • Rettig WJ, Murty VV, Mattes MJ, Chaganti RS, Old LJ. Extracellular matrix-modulated expression of human cell surface glycoproteins A42 and J143. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals determine antigenic phenotype. J Exp Med. 1986 Nov 1;164(5):1581–1599. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PubMed]
  • Smith RF, Smith TF. Automatic generation of primary sequence patterns from sets of related protein sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan;87(1):118–122. [PubMed]
  • Solowska J, Guan JL, Marcantonio EE, Trevithick JE, Buck CA, Hynes RO. Expression of normal and mutant avian integrin subunits in rodent cells. J Cell Biol. 1989 Aug;109(2):853–861. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sonnenberg A, Linders CJ, Modderman PW, Damsky CH, Aumailley M, Timpl R. Integrin recognition of different cell-binding fragments of laminin (P1, E3, E8) and evidence that alpha 6 beta 1 but not alpha 6 beta 4 functions as a major receptor for fragment E8. J Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;110(6):2145–2155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suzuki S, Argraves WS, Arai H, Languino LR, Pierschbacher MD, Ruoslahti E. Amino acid sequence of the vitronectin receptor alpha subunit and comparative expression of adhesion receptor mRNAs. J Biol Chem. 1987 Oct 15;262(29):14080–14085. [PubMed]
  • Takada Y, Hemler ME. The primary structure of the VLA-2/collagen receptor alpha 2 subunit (platelet GPIa): homology to other integrins and the presence of a possible collagen-binding domain. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;109(1):397–407. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Takada Y, Huang C, Hemler ME. Fibronectin receptor structures in the VLA family of heterodimers. Nature. 1987 Apr 9;326(6113):607–609. [PubMed]
  • Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME. The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules involved in adhesion and embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May;84(10):3239–3243. [PubMed]
  • Takada Y, Wayner EA, Carter WG, Hemler ME. Extracellular matrix receptors, ECMRII and ECMRI, for collagen and fibronectin correspond to VLA-2 and VLA-3 in the VLA family of heterodimers. J Cell Biochem. 1988 Aug;37(4):385–393. [PubMed]
  • Takada Y, Elices MJ, Crouse C, Hemler ME. The primary structure of the alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4: homology to other integrins and a possible cell-cell adhesion function. EMBO J. 1989 May;8(5):1361–1368. [PubMed]
  • Tamura RN, Rozzo C, Starr L, Chambers J, Reichardt LF, Cooper HM, Quaranta V. Epithelial integrin alpha 6 beta 4: complete primary structure of alpha 6 and variant forms of beta 4. J Cell Biol. 1990 Oct;111(4):1593–1604. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsuji T, Yamamoto F, Miura Y, Takio K, Titani K, Pawar S, Osawa T, Hakomori S. Characterization through cDNA cloning of galactoprotein b3 (Gap b3), a cell surface membrane glycoprotein showing enhanced expression on oncogenic transformation. Identification of Gap b3 as a member of the integrin superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 25;265(12):7016–7021. [PubMed]
  • Van Eldik LJ, Zendegui JG, Marshak DR, Watterson DM. Calcium-binding proteins and the molecular basis of calcium action. Int Rev Cytol. 1982;77:1–61. [PubMed]
  • Wayner EA, Carter WG. Identification of multiple cell adhesion receptors for collagen and fibronectin in human fibrosarcoma cells possessing unique alpha and common beta subunits. J Cell Biol. 1987 Oct;105(4):1873–1884. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Young RA, Davis RW. Efficient isolation of genes by using antibody probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Mar;80(5):1194–1198. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press