PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
 
J Cell Biol. 1992 January 1; 116(1): 167–176.
PMCID: PMC2289266

In vitro analysis of the origin and maintenance of O-2Aadult progenitor cells

Abstract

We have been studying the differing characteristics of oligodendrocyte- type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitors isolated from optic nerves of perinatal and adult rats. These two cell types display striking differences in their in vitro phenotypes. In addition, the O- 2Aperinatal progenitor population appears to have a limited life-span in vivo, while O-2Aadult progenitors appear to be maintained throughout life. O-2Aperinatal progenitors seem to have largely disappeared from the optic nerve by 1 mo after birth, and are not detectable in cultures derived from optic nerves of adult rats. In contrast, O-2Aadult progenitors can first be isolated from optic nerves of 7-d-old rats and are still present in optic nerves of 1-yr-old rats. These observations raise two questions: (a) From what source do O-2Aadult progenitors originate; and (b) how is the O-2Aadult progenitor population maintained in the nerve throughout life? We now provide in vitro evidence indicating that O-2Aadult progenitors are derived directly from a subpopulation of O-2Aperinatal progenitors. We also provide evidence indicating that O-2Aadult progenitors are capable of prolonged self renewal in vitro. In addition, our data suggests that the in vitro generation of oligodendrocytes from O-2Aadult progenitors occurs primarily through asymmetric division and differentiation, in contrast with the self-extinguishing pattern of symmetric division and differentiation displayed by O-2Aperinatal progenitors in vitro. We suggest that O-2Aadult progenitors express at least some properties of stem cells and thus may be able to support the generation of both differentiated progeny cells as well as their own continued replenishment throughout adult life.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.2M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anderson DJ. Cellular 'neoteny': a possible developmental basis for chromaffin cell plasticity. Trends Genet. 1989 Jun;5(6):174–178. [PubMed]
  • Barres BA, Koroshetz WJ, Chun LL, Corey DP. Ion channel expression by white matter glia: the type-1 astrocyte. Neuron. 1990 Oct;5(4):527–544. [PubMed]
  • Bignami A, Eng LF, Dahl D, Uyeda CT. Localization of the glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes by immunofluorescence. Brain Res. 1972 Aug 25;43(2):429–435. [PubMed]
  • Bottenstein JE, Sato GH. Growth of a rat neuroblastoma cell line in serum-free supplemented medium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jan;76(1):514–517. [PubMed]
  • Cossu G, Eusebi F, Grassi F, Wanke E. Acetylcholine receptor channels are present in undifferentiated satellite cells but not in embryonic myoblasts in culture. Dev Biol. 1987 Sep;123(1):43–50. [PubMed]
  • Eisenbarth GS, Walsh FS, Nirenberg M. Monoclonal antibody to a plasma membrane antigen of neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct;76(10):4913–4917. [PubMed]
  • Ffrench-Constant C, Raff MC. Proliferating bipotential glial progenitor cells in adult rat optic nerve. Nature. 1986 Feb 6;319(6053):499–502. [PubMed]
  • Grinspan JB, Stern JL, Pustilnik SM, Pleasure D. Cerebral white matter contains PDGF-responsive precursors to O2A cells. J Neurosci. 1990 Jun;10(6):1866–1873. [PubMed]
  • Hall PA, Watt FM. Stem cells: the generation and maintenance of cellular diversity. Development. 1989 Aug;106(4):619–633. [PubMed]
  • Johnson GD, Davidson RS, McNamee KC, Russell G, Goodwin D, Holborow EJ. Fading of immunofluorescence during microscopy: a study of the phenomenon and its remedy. J Immunol Methods. 1982 Dec 17;55(2):231–242. [PubMed]
  • Levi G, Aloisi F, Wilkin GP. Differentiation of cerebellar bipotential glial precursors into oligodendrocytes in primary culture: developmental profile of surface antigens and mitotic activity. J Neurosci Res. 1987;18(3):407–417. [PubMed]
  • Noble M. Points of controversy in the O-2A lineage: clocks and type-2 astrocytes. Glia. 1991;4(2):157–164. [PubMed]
  • Noble M, Murray K. Purified astrocytes promote the in vitro division of a bipotential glial progenitor cell. EMBO J. 1984 Oct;3(10):2243–2247. [PubMed]
  • Noble M, Fok-Seang J, Cohen J. Glia are a unique substrate for the in vitro growth of central nervous system neurons. J Neurosci. 1984 Jul;4(7):1892–1903. [PubMed]
  • Noble M, Murray K, Stroobant P, Waterfield MD, Riddle P. Platelet-derived growth factor promotes division and motility and inhibits premature differentiation of the oligodendrocyte/type-2 astrocyte progenitor cell. Nature. 1988 Jun 9;333(6173):560–562. [PubMed]
  • Raff MC, Mirsky R, Fields KL, Lisak RP, Dorfman SH, Silberberg DH, Gregson NA, Leibowitz S, Kennedy MC. Galactocerebroside is a specific cell-surface antigenic marker for oligodendrocytes in culture. Nature. 1978 Aug 24;274(5673):813–816. [PubMed]
  • Raff MC, Abney ER, Cohen J, Lindsay R, Noble M. Two types of astrocytes in cultures of developing rat white matter: differences in morphology, surface gangliosides, and growth characteristics. J Neurosci. 1983 Jun;3(6):1289–1300. [PubMed]
  • Raff MC, Miller RH, Noble M. A glial progenitor cell that develops in vitro into an astrocyte or an oligodendrocyte depending on culture medium. Nature. 1983 Jun 2;303(5916):390–396. [PubMed]
  • Raff MC, Lillien LE, Richardson WD, Burne JF, Noble MD. Platelet-derived growth factor from astrocytes drives the clock that times oligodendrocyte development in culture. Nature. 1988 Jun 9;333(6173):562–565. [PubMed]
  • Ranscht B, Clapshaw PA, Price J, Noble M, Seifert W. Development of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells studied with a monoclonal antibody against galactocerebroside. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Apr;79(8):2709–2713. [PubMed]
  • Schafer DA, Miller JB, Stockdale FE. Cell diversification within the myogenic lineage: in vitro generation of two types of myoblasts from a single myogenic progenitor cell. Cell. 1987 Feb 27;48(4):659–670. [PubMed]
  • Small RK, Riddle P, Noble M. Evidence for migration of oligodendrocyte--type-2 astrocyte progenitor cells into the developing rat optic nerve. Nature. 1987 Jul 9;328(6126):155–157. [PubMed]
  • Sommer I, Schachner M. Monoclonal antibodies (O1 to O4) to oligodendrocyte cell surfaces: an immunocytological study in the central nervous system. Dev Biol. 1981 Apr 30;83(2):311–327. [PubMed]
  • Temple S, Raff MC. Clonal analysis of oligodendrocyte development in culture: evidence for a developmental clock that counts cell divisions. Cell. 1986 Mar 14;44(5):773–779. [PubMed]
  • Wolswijk G, Noble M. Identification of an adult-specific glial progenitor cell. Development. 1989 Feb;105(2):387–400. [PubMed]
  • Wolswijk G, Riddle PN, Noble M. Coexistence of perinatal and adult forms of a glial progenitor cell during development of the rat optic nerve. Development. 1990 Jul;109(3):691–698. [PubMed]
  • Wolswijk G, Riddle PN, Noble M. Platelet-derived growth factor is mitogenic for O-2Aadult progenitor cells. Glia. 1991;4(5):495–503. [PubMed]
  • Wood WG, Bunch C, Kelly S, Gunn Y, Breckon G. Control of haemoglobin switching by a developmental clock? Nature. 1985 Jan 24;313(6000):320–323. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press