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A collection of 54 isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotypes 3 and 14 and serogroups 6, 9, 19, and 23 was investigated. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested that two clones were represented in the collection, one of serotype 14 isolates, most of which were resistant to erythromycin, and one of serotype 9V isolates, in which resistance to penicillin (MIC, 1 microgram/ml), cefotaxime, and co-trimoxazole was common. Among other isolates there were only a limited correlation between genetic relatedness measured by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and expression of the same capsule type. However, isolates with highly related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns always shared the same serotype and highly related allele profiles. Calculation of the index of association suggests a freely recombining population structure with epidemic spread of successful clones.