1. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291:1238–1245. [PubMed]
2. Baigent MF. Physical complications of substance abuse: what the psychiatrist needs to know. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2003;16:291–296.
3. Greenfield TK. Individual risk of alcohol-related disease and problems. In: Heather N, Peters TJ, Stockwell T, editors. International Handbook of Alcohol Dependence and Problems. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2001. pp. 413–437.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995–1999. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2002;51:300–303. [PubMed]
5. Office of National Drug Control Policy. Publication No. NCJ-190636. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President; 2001. The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992–1998.
6. Harwood H. Updating Estimates of the Economic Costs of Alcohol Abuse in the United States: Estimates, Update Methods, and Data. The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States 1992. Report prepared for the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services. NIH Publication No. 98-4327; Rockville, Md: National Institutes of Health; 2000.
7. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. College students and adults ages 19–45. NIH Publication No. 05-5728. II. Bethesda, Md: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2005. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2004; p. 278.
8. Department of Health and Human Services. DHHS Publication No. CDC 89-8411. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994. Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the surgeon general.
9. McCambridge J, Strang J. Age of first use and ongoing patterns of legal and illegal drug use in a sample of young Londoners. Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40:313–319. [PubMed] 10. Storr CL, Westergaard R, Anthony JC. Early onset inhalant use and risk for opiate initiation by young adulthood. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;78:253–261. [PubMed] 11. Chen CY, O’Brien MS, Anthony JC. Who becomes cannabis dependent soon after onset of use? Epidemiological evidence from the United States: 2000–2001. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;79:11–22. [PubMed] 12. Anthony JC, Petronis KR. Early-onset drug use and risk of later drug problems. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1995;40:9–15. [PubMed] 13. Yen CF, Su YC. The associations of early-onset methamphetamine use with psychiatric morbidity among Taiwanese adolescents. Subst Use Misuse. 2006;41:35–44. [PubMed] 14. Ridenour TA, Maldonado-Molina M, Compton WM, Spitznagel EL, Cottler LB. Factors associated with the transition from abuse to dependence among substance abusers: implications for a measure of addictive liability. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;80:1–14. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 15. Franken IHA, Hendriks VM. Early-onset of illicit substance use is associated with greater axis-II comorbidity, not with axis-I comorbidity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000;59:305–308. [PubMed]
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance summaries. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2004 May 21, 2004;53(No SS2)
17. Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, et al. Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:861–863. [PubMed] 18. Chambers RA, Taylor JR, Potenza MN. Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: a critical period of addiction vulnerability. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1041–1052. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 19. Adriani W, Spijker S, Deroche-Gamonet V, et al. Evidence for enhanced neurobehavioral vulnerability to nicotine during periadolescence in rats. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4712–4716. [PubMed] 20. Schenk S, Izenwasser S. Pretreatment with methylphenidate sensitizes rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;72:651–657. [PubMed] 21. Swartzwelder HS, Richardson RC, Markwiese-Foerch B, Wilson WA, Little PJ. Developmental differences in the acquisition of tolerance to ethanol. Alcohol. 1998;15:311–314. [PubMed] 22. Luna B, Sweeney JA. The emergence of collaborative brain function—fMRI studies of the development of response inhibition. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:296–309. [PubMed] 23. Kelley AE, Schochet T, Landry CF. Risk taking and novelty seeking in adolescence: introduction to part I. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:27–32. [PubMed] 24. Steinberg L. Risk taking in adolescence: what changes, and why? Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:51–58. [PubMed]
25. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., text rev. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2001.
26. Nace EP, Meyers AL, Rothberg JM, Maleson F. Addicted and nonaddicted drug users. A comparison of drug usage patterns. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1975;32:77–80. [PubMed]
27. Williams RJ, Zolner T, Bertrand LD, Davis R. Mental health status of infrequent adolescent substance users. J Child Adolesc Subst. 2004;14:41–60.
28. Shedler J, Block J. Adolescent drug use and psychological health. A longitudinal inquiry. Am Psychol. 1990;45:612–630. [PubMed] 29. Guilamo-Ramos V, Turrisi R, Jaccard J, Wood E, Gonzalez B. Progressing from light experimentation to heavy episodic drinking in early and middle adolescence. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65:494–500. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 30. Dawson DA, Harford TC, Grant BF. Family history as a predictor of alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992;16:572–575. [PubMed] 31. Schuckit MA, Smith TL. A comparison of correlates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence among more than 400 sons of alcoholics and controls. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25:1–8. [PubMed] 32. Martin CS, Earleywine M, Blackson TC, Vanyukov MM, Moss HB, Tarter RE. Aggressivity, inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in boys at high and low risk for substance abuse. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1994;22:177–203. [PubMed] 33. Leon-Carrion J, Garcia-Orza J, Perez-Santamaria FJ. Development of the inhibitory component of the executive functions in children and adolescents. Int J Neurosci. 2004;114:1291–1311. [PubMed] 34. Brocki KC, Bohlin G. Executive functions in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study. Dev Neuropsychol. 2004;26:571–593. [PubMed] 35. Anderson VA, Anderson P, Northam E, Jacobs R, Catroppa C. Development of executive functions through late childhood and adolescence in an Australian sample. Dev Neuropsychol. 2001;20:385– 406. [PubMed] 36. Klenberg L, Korkman M, Lahti-Nuuttila P. Differential development of attention and executive functions in 3- to 12-year-old Finnish children. Dev Neuropsychol. 2001;20:407–428. [PubMed] 37. Tamm L, Menon V, Reiss AL. Maturation of brain function associated with response inhibition. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41:1231–1238. [PubMed]
38. Levin HS, Culhane KA, Hartmann J, Evankovich K, Mattson AJ. Developmental changes in performance on tests of purported frontal lobe functioning. Dev Neuropsychol. 1991;7:377–395.
39. Iversen SD, Mishkin M. Perseverative interference in monkeys following selective lesions of the inferior prefrontal convexity. Exp Brain Res. 1970;11:376–386. [PubMed] 40. Hazeltine E, Poldrack R, Gabrieli JD. Neural activation during response competition. J Cogn Neurosci. 2000;12 (Suppl 2):118–129. [PubMed] 41. Ullsperger M, von Cramon DY. Neuroimaging of performance monitoring: Error detection and beyond. Cortex. 2004;40:593–604. [PubMed] 42. Fornito A, Yucel M, Wood S, et al. Individual differences in anterior cingulate/paracingulate morphology are related to executive functions in healthy males. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:424–431. [PubMed] 43. Heyder K, Suchan B, Daum I. Cortico-subcortical contributions to executive control. Acta Psychol. 2004;115:271–289. [PubMed] 44. Giedd JN. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:77–85. [PubMed] 45. Paus T, Zijdenbos A, Worsley K, et al. Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. Science. 1999;283:1908–1911. [PubMed] 46. Bartzokis G, Beckson M, Lu PH, Nuechterlein KH, Edwards N, Mintz J. Age-related changes in frontal and temporal lobe volumes in men: A magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:461–465. [PubMed] 47. Rakic P, Bourgeois JP, Goldman-Rakic PS. Synaptic development of the cerebral cortex: implications for learning, memory, and mental illness. Prog Brain Res. 1994;102:227–243. [PubMed] 48. Lichtman JW, Colman H. Synapse elimination and indelible memory. Neuron. 2000;25:269–278. [PubMed] 49. Casey BJ, Giedd JN, Thomas KM. Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;54:241–257. [PubMed]
50. Casey BJ, Thomas KM, Welsh TF, et al. A developmental fMRI study of prefrontal organization. Neuroimage. 1998;7:S512.
51. Casey BJ, Trainor RJ, Orendi JL, et al. A developmental functional MRI study of prefrontal activation during performance of a go–no-go task. J Cogn Neurosci. 1997;9:835–847. [PubMed] 52. Luna B, Sweeney JA. The emergence of collaborative brain function—fMRI studies of the development of response inhibition. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:296–309. [PubMed] 53. Chechik G, Meilijson I, Ruppin E. Synaptic pruning in development: A computational account. Neural Comput. 1998;10:1759–1777. [PubMed] 54. Mimura K, Kimoto T, Okada M. Synapse efficiency diverges due to synaptic pruning following overgrowth. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2003;68:031910. [PubMed] 55. Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, et al. Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:861–863. [PubMed] 56. Durston S, Hulshoff Pol HE, Casey BJ, Giedd JN, Buitelaar JK, van Engeland H. Anatomical MRI of the developing human brain: what have we learned? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40:1012–1020. [PubMed] 57. Rajapakse JC, DeCarli C, McLaughlin A, et al. Cerebral magnetic resonance image segmentation using data fusion. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1996;20:206–218. [PubMed] 58. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Tessner KD, Toga AW. Mapping continued brain growth and gray matter density reduction in dorsal frontal cortex: inverse relationships during postadolescent brain maturation. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8819–8829. [PubMed] 59. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Holmes CJ, Jernigan TL, Toga AW. In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:859–861. [PubMed] 60. Jernigan TL, Trauner DA, Hesselink JR, Tallal PA. Maturation of human cerebrum observed in vivo during adolescence. Brain. 1991;114:2037–2049. [PubMed] 61. Kanemura H, Aihara M, Aoki S, Araki T, Nakazawa S. Development of the prefrontal lobe in infants and children: A three-dimensional magnetic resonance volumetric study. Brain Dev. 2003;25:195–199. [PubMed] 62. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Holmes CJ, Batth R, Jernigan TL, Toga AW. Localizing age-related changes in brain structure between childhood and adolescence using statistical parametric mapping. Neuroimage. 1999;9:587–597. [PubMed] 63. Gogtay N, Giedd JN, Lusk L, et al. Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:8174–8179. [PubMed] 64. Kalivas PW. Neurotransmitter regulation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1993;18:75–113. [PubMed]
65. Gardner EL. Brain reward mechanisms. In: Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB, Langrod JG, editors. Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1997.
66. Carelli RM, Deadwyler SA. A comparison of nucleus accumbens neuronal firing patterns during cocaine self-administration and water reinforcement in rats. J Neurosci. 1994;14:7735–7746. [PubMed] 67. Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T. Responses of monkey dopamine neurons to reward and conditioned stimuli during successive steps of learning a delayed response task. J Neurosci. 1993;13:900–913. [PubMed] 68. Carlezon WA, Jr, Wise RA. Rewarding actions of phencyclidine and related drugs in nucleus accumbens shell and frontal cortex. J Neurosci. 1996;16:3112–3122. [PubMed] 69. Di Chiara G. A motivational learning hypothesis of the role of mesolimbic dopamine in compulsive drug use. J Psychopharmacol. 1998;12:54–67. [PubMed] 70. Di Chiara G. Alcohol and dopamine. Alcohol Health Res World. 1997;21:108–114. [PubMed] 71. Adinoff B. Neurobiologic processes in drug reward and addiction. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2004;12:305–320. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 72. Palacios JM, Camps M, Cortes R, Probst A. Mapping dopamine receptors in the human brain. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1988;27:227–235. [PubMed] 73. Seeman P, Bzowej NH, Guan HC, et al. Human brain dopamine receptors in children and aging adults. Synapse. 1987;1:399–404. [PubMed] 74. Tarazi FI, Tomasini EC, Baldessarini RJ. Postnatal development of dopamine D1-like receptors in rat cortical and striatolimbic brain regions: An autoradiographic study. Dev Neurosci. 1999;21:43–49. [PubMed]
75. Ennulat DJ, Andersen SL, Yang M, Teicher MH. Ontogeny of dopamine D1 receptor mRNA during the periadolescent period in rats. Paper presented at: Society for Neuroscience’s 30th Annual Meeting; November 4–9, 2000; New Orleans, La.
76. Montague DM, Lawler CP, Mailman RB, Gilmore JH. Developmental regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor in human caudate and putamen. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;21:641–649. [PubMed] 77. Tarazi FI, Tomasini EC, Baldessarini RJ. Postnatal development of dopamine D4-like receptors in rat forebrain regions: comparison with D2-like receptors. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 1998;110:227–233. [PubMed] 78. Teicher MH, Andersen SL, Hostetter JC., Jr Evidence for dopamine receptor pruning between adolescence and adulthood in striatum but not nucleus accumbens. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 1995;89:167–172. [PubMed] 79. Andersen SL, Thompson AT, Rutstein M, Hostetter JC, Teicher MH. Dopamine receptor pruning in prefrontal cortex during the periadolescent period in rats. Synapse. 2000;37:167–169. [PubMed] 80. Leslie CA, Robertson MW, Cutler AJ, Bennett JP., Jr Postnatal development of D1 dopamine receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and nucleus accumbens of normal and neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats: A quantitative autoradiographic analysis. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 1991;62:109–114. [PubMed] 81. Kalsbeek A, Voorn P, Buijs RM, Pool CW, Uylings HB. Development of the dopaminergic innervation in the prefrontal cortex of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1988;269:58–72. [PubMed] 82. Lesting J, Neddens J, Teuchert-Noodt G. Ontogeny of the dopamine innervation in the nucleus accumbens of gerbils. Brain Res. 2005;1066:16–23. [PubMed] 83. Lewis DA. Development of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence: Insights into vulnerable neural circuits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1997;16:385–398. [PubMed]
84. Spear LP. Neurobehavioral changes in adolescence. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2000;9:111–114.
85. Teicher MH, Barber NI, Gelbard HA, et al. Developmental differences in acute nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system response to haloperidol. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993;9:147–156. [PubMed] 86. Andersen SL, Dumont NL, Teicher MH. Developmental differences in dopamine synthesis inhibition by (+/−)-7-OH-DPAT. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1997;356:173–181. [PubMed] 87. Sandstrom MI, Bruno JP. Sensitivity to the motoric effects of a dopamine receptor antagonist differs as a function of age at the time of dopamine depletion. Dev Psychobiol. 1997;30:293–300. [PubMed] 88. Weihmuller FB, Bruno JP. Age-dependent plasticity in the dopaminergic control of sensorimotor development. Behav Brain Res. 1989;35:95–109. [PubMed] 89. Spear LP, Brake SC. Periadolescence: age-dependent behavior and psychopharmacological responsivity in rats. Dev Psychobiol. 1983;16:83–109. [PubMed] 90. Bolla K, Ernst M, Kiehl K, et al. Prefrontal cortical dysfunction in abstinent cocaine abusers. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;16:456–464. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 91. Giuffrida A, Parsons LH, Kerr TM, Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Navarro M, Piomelli D. Dopamine activation of endogenous cannabinoid signaling in dorsal striatum. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:358–363. [PubMed] 92. Diana M, Melis M, Gessa GL. Increase in meso-prefrontal dopaminergic activity after stimulation of CB1 receptors by cannabinoids. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:2825–2830. [PubMed] 93. Melis M, Perra S, Muntoni AL, et al. Prefrontal cortex stimulation induces 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-mediated suppression of excitation in dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10707–10715. [PubMed] 94. Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Ramos JA, Bonnin A, Fernandez-Ruiz JJ. Presence of cannabinoid binding sites in the brain from early postnatal ages. Neuroreport. 1993;4:135–138. [PubMed] 95. Fride E, Mechoulam R. Ontogenetic development of the response to anandamide and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 1996;95:131–134. [PubMed] 96. Fride E, Mechoulam R. Developmental aspects of anandamide: ontogeny of response and prenatal exposure. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1996;21:157–172. [PubMed] 97. Soria G, Mendizabal V, Tourino C, et al. Lack of CB1 cannabinoid receptor impairs cocaine self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:1670–1680. [PubMed] 98. Yamamoto T, Anggadiredja K, Hiranita T. New perspectives in the studies on endocannabinoid and cannabis: A role for the endocannabinoid-arachidonic acid pathway in drug reward and long-lasting relapse to drug taking. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004;96:382–388. [PubMed] 99. Cheer JF, Wassum KM, Heien ML, Phillips PE, Wightman RM. Cannabinoids enhance subsecond dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of awake rats. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4393–4400. [PubMed] 100. Frantz K, Van Hartesveldt C. Locomotion elicited by MK801 in developing and adult rats: Temporal, environmental, and gender effects. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;369:145–157. [PubMed] 101. Frantz K, Van Hartesveldt C. The locomotor effects of MK801 in the nucleus accumbens of developing and adult rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;368:125–135. [PubMed] 102. Subramaniam S, McGonigle P. Regional profile of developmental changes in the sensitivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor to polyamines. J Neurochem. 1994;62:1408–1415. [PubMed] 103. Court JA, Perry EK, Johnson M, et al. Regional patterns of cholinergic and glutamate activity in the developing and aging human brain. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 1993;74:73–82. [PubMed] 104. Johnson BA. Recent advances in the development of treatments for alcohol and cocaine dependence: Focus on topiramate and other modulators of GABA or glutamate function. CNS Drugs. 2005;19:873–896. [PubMed] 105. Nurse S, Lacaille JC. Late maturation of GABA(B) synaptic transmission in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus. Neuropharmacology. 1999;38:1733–1742. [PubMed] 106. Kellogg CK, Taylor MK, Rodriguez-Zafra M, Pleger GL. Altered stressor-induced changes in GABAA receptor function in the cerebral cortex of adult rats exposed in utero to diazepam. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993;44:267–273. [PubMed] 107. Kellogg CK. Early developmental modulation of GABAA receptor function. Influence on adaptive responses. Perspectives on Developmental Neurobiology. 1998;5:219–234. [PubMed] 108. Vincent SL, Pabreza L, Benes FM. Postnatal maturation of GABA-immunoreactive neurons of rat medial prefrontal cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1995;355:81–92. [PubMed] 109. Goveas JS, Csernansky JG, Coccaro EF. Platelet serotonin content correlates inversely with life history of aggression in personality-disordered subjects. Psychiatry Res. 2004;126:23–32. [PubMed] 110. Spoont MR. Modulatory role of serotonin in neural information processing: implications for human psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin. 1992;112:330–350. [PubMed] 111. Robbins TW, Everitt BJ. Drug addiction: bad habits add up. Nature. 1999;398:567–570. [PubMed] 112. Frankle WG, Lombardo I, New AS, et al. Brain serotonin transporter distribution in subjects with impulsive aggressivity: a positron emission study with [11C]McN 5652. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:915–923. [PubMed] 113. Hoglund E, Korzan WJ, Watt MJ, et al. Effects of L-DOPA on aggressive behavior and central monoaminergic activity in the lizard Anolis carolinensis, using a new method for drug delivery. Behav Brain Res. 2005;156:53–64. [PubMed] 114. van der Vegt BJ, Lieuwes N, Cremers TI, de Boer SF, Koolhaas JM. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine and metabolite concentrations and aggression in rats. Hormones & Behavior. 2003;44:199–208. [PubMed] 115. Ferrari PF, van Erp AM, Tornatzky W, Miczek KA. Accumbal dopamine and serotonin in anticipation of the next aggressive episode in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:371–378. [PubMed] 116. Higley JD, Mehlman PT, Poland RE, et al. CSF testosterone and 5-HIAA correlate with different types of aggressive behaviors. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40:1067–1082. [PubMed] 117. Mehlman PT, Higley JD, Faucher I, et al. Low Csf 5-Hiaa concentrations and severe aggression and impaired impulse control in nonhuman-primates. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1485–1491. [PubMed]
118. Teicher MH, Andersen SL. Limbic serotonin turnover plunges during puberty. Paper presented at: Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience; Miami Beach, Fla. 1999.
119. Dillon KA, Gross-Isseroff R, Israeli M, Biegon A. Autoradiographic analysis of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding in the human brain postmortem: Effects of age and alcohol. Brain Res. 1991;554:56–64. [PubMed] 120. Lambe EK, Krimer LS, Goldman-Rakic PS. Differential postnatal development of catecholamine and serotonin inputs to identified neurons in prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkey. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8780–8787. [PubMed] 121. Goldman-Rakic PS, Brown RM. Postnatal development of monoamine content and synthesis in the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys. Brain Res. 1982;256:339–349. [PubMed] 122. Dinopoulos A, Dori I, Parnavelas JG. The serotonin innervation of the basal forebrain shows a transient phase during development. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 1997;99:38–52. [PubMed] 123. Kalivas PW, Churchill L, Romanides A. Involvement of the pallidalthalamocortical circuit in adaptive behavior. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999;877:64–70. [PubMed] 124. Jentsch JD, Roth RH, Taylor JR. Role for dopamine in the behavioral functions of the prefrontal corticostriatal system: implications for mental disorders and psychotropic drug action. Prog Brain Res. 2000;126:433–453. [PubMed] 125. Swanson LW. Cerebral hemisphere regulation of motivated behavior. Brain Res. 2000;886:113–164. [PubMed] 126. Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR. Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Cereb Cortex. 2000;10:272–284. [PubMed] 127. Finch DM. Neurophysiology of converging synaptic inputs from the rat prefrontal cortex, amygdala, midline thalamus, and hippocampal formation onto single neurons of the caudate/putamen and nucleus accumbens. Hippocampus. 1996;6:495–512. [PubMed] 128. Lavin A, Grace AA. Modulation of dorsal thalamic cell activity by the ventral pallidum: Its role in the regulation of thalamocortical activity by the basal ganglia. Synapse. 1994;18:104–127. [PubMed] 129. Nestler EJ, Barrot M, Self DW. DeltaFosB: A sustained molecular switch for addiction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98:11042–11046. [PubMed] 130. Hyman SE, Malenka RC. Addiction and the brain: the neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001;2:695–703. [PubMed] 131. Gurden H, Tassin JP, Jay TM. Integrity of the mesocortical dopaminergic system is necessary for complete expression of in vivo hippocampal-prefrontal cortex long-term potentiation. Neuroscience. 1999;94:1019–1027. [PubMed] 132. Robinson TE, Kolb B. Alterations in the morphology of dendrites and dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex following repeated treatment with amphetamine or cocaine. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:1598–1604. [PubMed] 133. Mulder AB, Arts MP, Lopes da Silva FH. Short- and long-term plasticity of the hippocampus to nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex pathways in the rat, in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 1997;9:1603–1611. [PubMed] 134. Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1403–1413. [PubMed] 135. Taylor JR, Jentsch JD. Repeated intermittent administration of psychomotor stimulant drugs alters the acquisition of Pavlovian approach behavior in rats: differential effects of cocaine, d-amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) Biol Psychiatry. 2001;50:137–143. [PubMed] 136. Ricaurte G, Bryan G, Strauss L, Seiden L, Schuster C. Hallucinogenic amphetamine selectively destroys brain serotonin nerve terminals. Science. 1985;229:986–988. [PubMed] 137. Schmidt CJ. Neurotoxicity of the psychedelic amphetamine, methylene-dioxymethamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987;240:1–7. [PubMed] 138. Knyshevski I, Ricci LA, McCann TE, Melloni RH., Jr Serotonin type-1A receptors modulate adolescent, cocaine-induced offensive aggression in hamsters. Physiol Behav. 2005;85:167–176. [PubMed] 139. Hollander E, Rosen J. Impulsivity. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14:S39–S44. [PubMed] 140. Matthews SC, Simmons AN, Arce E, Paulus MP. Dissociation of inhibition from error processing using a parametric inhibitory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroreport. 2005;16:755–760. [PubMed] 141. Aron AR, Poldrack RA. The cognitive neuroscience of response inhibition: Relevance for genetic research in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:1285–1292. [PubMed] 142. Harrison BJ, Shaw M, Yucel M, et al. Functional connectivity during Stroop task performance. Neuroimage. 2005;24:181–191. [PubMed] 143. Herrmann MJ, Plichta MM, Ehlis AC, Fallgatter AJ. Optical topography during a Go-NoGo task assessed with multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. Behav Brain Res. 2005;160:135–140. [PubMed] 144. Miller EK, Cohen JD. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2001;24:167–202. [PubMed] 145. Ernst M, Pine DS, Hardin M. Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence. Psychol Med. 2005;36:299–312. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 146. Kalivas PW. Glutamate systems in cocaine addiction. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2004;4:23–29. [PubMed] 147. Karreman M, Westerink BH, Moghaddam B. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the ventral tegmental area regulate dopamine release in the ventral striatum. J Neurochem. 1996;67:601–607. [PubMed] 148. Tzschentke TM, Schmidt WJ. Glutamatergic mechanisms in addiction. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:373–382. [PubMed] 149. Berlin HA, Rolls ET, Kischka U. Impulsivity, time perception, emotion and reinforcement sensitivity in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Brain. 2004;127:1108–1126. [PubMed] 150. Spinella M. Neurobehavioral correlates of impulsivity: Evidence of prefrontal involvement. Int J Neurosci. 2004;114:95–104. [PubMed] 151. Shamay-Tsoory SG, Tomer R, Berger BD, Goldsher D, Aharon-Peretz J. Impaired “affective theory of mind” is associated with right ventromedial prefrontal damage. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2005;18:55–67. [PubMed] 152. Max JE, Levin HS, Landis J, et al. Predictors of personality change due to traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents in the first six months after injury. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44:434–442. [PubMed] 153. Franklin TR, Acton PD, Maldjian JA, et al. Decreased gray matter concentration in the insular, orbitofrontal, cingulate, and temporal cortices of cocaine patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;51:134–142. [PubMed] 154. Fuchs RA, Evans KA, Ledford CC, et al. The role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus in contextual reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:296–309. [PubMed] 155. Kalivas PW, Volkow N, Seamans J. Unmanageable motivation in addiction: A pathology in prefrontal-accumbens glutamate transmission. Neuron. 2005;45:647–650. [PubMed] 156. Robinson TE, Kolb B. Structural plasticity associated with exposure to drugs of abuse. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47 (Suppl 1):33–46. [PubMed] 157. Bjork JM, Knutson B, Fong GW, Caggiano DM, Bennett SM, Hommer DW. Incentive-elicited brain activation in adolescents: similarities and differences from young adults. J Neurosci. 2004;24:1793–1802. [PubMed] 158. Ernst M, Nelson EE, Jazbec S, et al. Amygdala and nucleus accumbens in responses to receipt and omission of gains in adults and adolescents. Neuroimage. 2005;25:1279–1291. [PubMed] 159. Tarazi FI, Tomasini EC, Baldessarini RJ. Postnatal development of dopamine and serotonin transporters in rat caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens septi. Neurosci Lett. 1998;254:21–24. [PubMed] 160. Robinson TE, Berridge KC. The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research: Brain Research Reviews. 1993;18:247–291. [PubMed] 161. Heusner CL, Palmiter RD. Expression of mutant NMDA receptors in dopamine D1 receptor-containing cells prevents cocaine sensitization and decreases cocaine preference. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6651–6657. [PubMed] 162. Di Canio P, Everitt BJ. Contribution of the ventral tegmental area to cocaine-seeking maintained by a drug conditioned stimulus in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:1661–1667. [PubMed]
163. Steinberg LD. Adolescence. 7. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005.
164. Primus RJ, Kellogg CK. Pubertal-related changes influence the development of environment-related social-interaction in the male rat. Dev Psychobiol. 1989;22:633–643. [PubMed]
165. Weisfeld GE, Berger JM. Some features of human adolescence viewed in evolutionary perspective. Human Development. 1983;26:121–133.
166. Kraemer HC, Horvat JR, Doering C, McGinnis PR. Male chimpanzee development focusing on adolescence: integration of behavioral with physiological changes. Primates. 1982;23:393–405.
167. Spear LP. Adolescent brain development and animal models. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:23–26. [PubMed]
168. Steinberg L. Reciprocal relation between parent child distance and pubertal maturation. Dev Psychol. 1988;24:122–128.
169. Larson R, Richards MH. Daily companionship in late childhood and early adolescence—changing developmental contexts. Child Dev. 1991;62:284–300. [PubMed] 170. McGue M, Elkins I, Walden B, Iacono WG. Perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship: a longitudinal investigation. Dev Psychol. 2005;41:971–984. [PubMed]
171. Arnett J. Reckless behavior in adolescence: a developmental perspective. Developmental Review. 1992;12:339–373.
172. Moffitt TE. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychol Rev. 1993;100:674–701. [PubMed] 173. Zahn-Waxler C, Klimes-Dougan B, Slattery MJ. Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Dev Psychopathol. 2000;12:443–466. [PubMed] 174. Donovan JE, Leech SL, Zucker RA, et al. Really underage drinkers: alcohol use among elementary students. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:341–349. [PubMed] 175. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Newman DL, Silva PA. Behavioral observations at age three years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:1033–1039. [PubMed] 176. Clark DB, Cornelius JR, Kirisci L, Tarter RE. Childhood risk categories for adolescent substance involvement: a general liability typology. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;77:13–21. [PubMed] 177. Clark DB. The natural history of adolescent alcohol use disorders. Addiction. 2004;99(Suppl 2):5–22. [PubMed] 178. Simkin DR. Adolescent substance use disorders and comorbidity. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002;49:463–477. [PubMed] 179. Shoal GD, Giancola PR. Executive cognitive functioning, negative affectivity, and drug use in adolescent boys with and without a family history of a substance use disorder. J Child Adolesc Subst. 2001;10:111–121. [PubMed] 180. Nigg JT, Glass JM, Wong MM, et al. Neuropsychological executive functioning in children at elevated risk for alcoholism: Findings in early adolescence. J Abnorm Psychol. 2004;113:302–314. [PubMed] 181. Giancola PR, Mezzich AC. Executive functioning, temperament, and drug use involvement in adolescent females with a substance use disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003;44:857–866. [PubMed] 182. Overman WH, Frassrand K, Ansel S, Trawalter S, Bies B, Redmond A. Performance on the IOWA card task by adolescents and adults. Neuropsychologia. 2004;42:1838–1851. [PubMed] 183. Gardner M, Steinberg L. Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: an experimental study. Dev Psychol. 2005;41:625–635. [PubMed]
184. Neighbors BD, Clark DB, Donovan JE, Brody GH. Difficult temperament, parental relationships, and adolescent alcohol use disorder symptoms. J Child Adoles Subst. 2000;10:69–86.
185. Giancola PR, Parker AM. A six-year prospective study of pathways toward drug use in adolescent boys with and without a family history of a substance use disorder. J Stud Alcohol. 2001;62:166–178. [PubMed] 186. Neighbors B, Kempton T, Forehand R. Co-occurrence of substance abuse with conduct, anxiety, and depression disorders in juvenile delinquents. Addict Behav. 1992;17:379–386. [PubMed] 187. Turner AP, Larimer ME, Sarason IG, Trupin EW. Identifying a negative mood subtype in incarcerated adolescents: relationship to substance use. Addict Behav. 2005;30:1442–1448. [PubMed] 188. Torikka A, Kaltiala-Heino R, Rimpela A, Rimpela M, Rantanen P. Depression, drinking, and substance use among 14- to 16-year-old Finnish adolescents. Nord J Psychiatry. 2001;55:351–357. [PubMed]
189. Galambos NL, Leadbeater BJ, Barker ET. Gender differences in and risk factors for depression in adolescence: a four-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 2004;28:16–25.
190. Silberg J, Rutter M, D’Onofrio B, Eaves L. Genetic and environmental risk factors in adolescent substance use. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003;44:664–676. [PubMed] 191. Armstrong TD, Costello EJ. Community studies on adolescent substance use, abuse, or dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70:1224–1239. [PubMed] 192. Lewinsohn PM, Rohde P, Klein DN, Seeley JR. Natural course of adolescent major depressive disorder: I. Continuity into young adulthood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38:56–63. [PubMed] 193. Rao U, Ryan ND, Dahl RE, et al. Factors associated with the development of substance use disorder in depressed adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38:1109–1117. [PubMed] 194. Lopez B, Turner RJ, Saavedra LM. Anxiety and risk for substance dependence among late adolescents/young adults. J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19:275–294. [PubMed] 195. Hallfors DD, Waller MW, Bauer D, Ford CA, Halpern CT. Which comes first in adolescence—sex and drugs or depression? Am J Prev Med. 2005;29:163–170. [PubMed] 196. Rao U. Links between depression and substance abuse in adolescents: neurobiological mechanisms. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:161–174. [PubMed] 197. Cadoret RJ, Yates WR, Troughton E, Woodworth G, Stewart MA. Adoption study demonstrating two genetic pathways to drug abuse. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:42–52. [PubMed] 198. Rose RJ, Dick DM, Viken RJ, Pulkkinen L, Kaprio J. Genetic and environmental effects on conduct disorder and alcohol dependence symptoms and their covariation at age 14. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:1541–1548. [PubMed] 199. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Newman DL, Silva PA. Behavioral observations at age three years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:1033–1039. [PubMed] 200. Robins LN. The intimate connection between antisocial personality and substance abuse. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1998;33:393–399. [PubMed] 201. McGue M, Iacono WG. The association of early adolescent problem behavior with adult psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1118–1124. [PubMed] 202. Brady KT, Verduin ML. Pharmacotherapy of comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40:2021–2041. 2043–2048. [PubMed] 203. Krystal JH, D’Souza DC, Sanacora G, Goddard AW, Charney DS. Current perspectives on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Med Clin North Am. 2001;85:559–577. [PubMed] 204. Zalsman G, Oquendo MA, Greenhill L, et al. Neurobiology of depression in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2006;15:vii–viii. 843–868. [PubMed] 205. Lyoo IK, Lee HK, Jung JH, Noam GG, Renshaw PF. White matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with psychiatric disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2002;43:361–368. [PubMed] 206. Deas D. Adolescent substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidities. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67 (Suppl 7):18–23. [PubMed] 207. Waxmonsky JG, Wilens TE. Pharmacotherapy of adolescent substance use disorders: a review of the literature. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15:810–825. [PubMed] 208. Wilens TE, Biederman J, Milberger S, et al. Is bipolar disorder a risk for cigarette smoking in ADHD youth? Am J Addict. 2000;9:187–195. [PubMed] 209. Wilens TE, Faraone SV, Biederman J, Gunawardene S. Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2003;111:179–185. [PubMed]
210. Akers JF, Jones RM, Coyl DD. Adolescent friendship pairs: Similarities in identity status development behaviors, attitudes, and intentions. J Adolesc Res. 1998;13:178–201.
211. Poulin F, Boivin M. The role of proactive and reactive aggression in the formation and development of boys’ friendships. Dev Psychol. 2000;36:233–240. [PubMed] 212. Fergusson DM, Swain-Campbell NR, Horwood LJ. Deviant peer affiliations, crime and substance use: a fixed effects regression analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002;30:419–430. [PubMed] 213. Li F, Barrera M, Jr, Hops H, Fisher KJ. The longitudinal influence of peers on the development of alcohol use in late adolescence: a growth mixture analysis. J Behav Med. 2002;25:293–315. [PubMed] 214. Barnes GM, Welte JW, Hoffman JH, Dintcheff BA. Shared predictors of youthful gambling, substance use, and delinquency. Psychol Addict Behav. 2005;19:165–174. [PubMed] 215. Moss HB, Bonicatto S, Kirisci L, Girardelli AM, Murrelle L. Substance abuse and associated psychosocial problems among Argentina adolescents: sex heterogeneity and familial transmission. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998;52:221–230. [PubMed] 216. Stormshak EA, Comeau CA, Shepard SA. The relative contribution of sibling deviance and peer deviance in the prediction of substance use across middle childhood. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2004;32:635–649. [PubMed] 217. Ary DV, Duncan TE, Biglan A, Metzler CW, Noell JW, Smolkowski K. Development of adolescent problem behavior. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1999;27:141–150. [PubMed] 218. Ary DV, Duncan TE, Duncan SC, Hops H. Adolescent problem behavior: the influence of parents and peers. Behav Res Ther. 1999;37:217–230. [PubMed] 219. Moss HB, Lynch KG, Hardie TL. Affiliation with deviant peers among children of substance dependent fathers from pre-adolescence into adolescence: associations with problem behaviors. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;71:117–125. [PubMed] 220. Nurco DN, Blatchley RJ, Hanlon TE, O’Grady KE. Early deviance and related risk factors in the children of narcotic addicts. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1999;25:25–45. [PubMed] 221. Tarter RE. Etiology of adolescent substance abuse: a developmental perspective. Am J Addict. 2002;11:171–191. [PubMed] 222. Tarter RE, Kirisci L, Mezzich A, et al. Neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood predicts early age at onset of substance use disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1078–1085. [PubMed] 223. Kirisci L, Tarter RE, Vanyukov M, Reynolds M, Habeych M. Relation between cognitive distortions and neurobehavior disinhibition on the development of substance use during adolescence and substance use disorder by young adulthood: a prospective study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;76:125–133. [PubMed] 224. Tarter RE, Kirisci L, Habeych M, Reynolds M, Vanyukov M. Neurobehavior disinhibition in childhood predisposes boys to substance use disorder by young adulthood: direct and mediated etiologic pathways. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;73:121–132. [PubMed] 225. Cornelius JR, Bukstein OG, Birmaher B, et al. Fluoxetine in adolescents with major depression and an alcohol use disorder: an open-label trial. Addict Behav. 2001;26:735–739. [PubMed] 226. Cornelius JR, Bukstein OG, Salloum IM, Kelly TM, Wood DS, Clark DB. Fluoxetine in depressed AUD adolescents: a one-year follow-up evaluation. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2004;14:33–38. [PubMed] 227. Riggs PD, Mikulich SK, Coffman LM, Crowley TJ. Fluoxetine in drug-dependent delinquents with major depression: an open trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 1997;7:87–95. [PubMed]
228. Donovan SJ, Susser ES, Nunes EV. Divalproex sodium for use with conduct-disordered adolescent marijuana users. Am J Addict. 1996;5:181–181.
229. Riggs PD, Leon SL, Mikulich SK, Pottle LC. An open trial of bupropion for ADHD in adolescents with substance use disorders and conduct disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;37:1271–1278. [PubMed] 230. Waldron HB, Kaminer Y. On the learning curve: the emerging evidence supporting cognitive-behavioral therapies for adolescent substance abuse. Addiction. 2004;99:93–105. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 231. Tevyaw TO, Monti PM. Motivational enhancement and other brief interventions for adolescent substance abuse: foundations, applications and evaluations. Addiction. 2004;99:63–75. [PubMed] 232. Liddle HA. Family-based therapies for adolescent alcohol and drug use: Research contributions and future research needs. Addiction. 2004;99:76–92. [PubMed] 233. Dishion TJ, McCord J, Poulin F. When interventions harm. Peer groups and problem behavior. Am Psychol. 1999;54:755–764. [PubMed]
234. Biglan A, Brennan PA, Foster SL, Holder HD. Helping Adolescents at Risk: Prevention of Multiple Problem Behaviors. New York: Guilford Press; 2004.
235. Frodl-Bauch T, Bottlender R, Hegerl U. Neurochemical substrates and neuroanatomical generators of the event-related P300. Neuropsychobiology. 1999;40:86–94. [PubMed] 236. Polich J, Herbst KL. P300 as a clinical assay: rationale, evaluation, and findings. Int J Psychophysiol. 2000;38:3–19. [PubMed] 237. Soltani M, Knight RT. Neural origins of the P300. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 2000;14:199–224. [PubMed] 238. Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Bihari B, Kissin B. Event-related brain potentials in boys at risk for alcoholism. Science. 1984;225:1493–1496. [PubMed] 239. Iacono WG, Carlson SR, Malone SM. Identifying a multivariate endophenotype for substance use disorders using psychophysiological measures. Int J Psychophysiol. 2000;38:81–96. [PubMed] 240. Anokhin AP, Heath AC, Myers E. Genetics, prefrontal cortex, and cognitive control: a twin study of event-related brain potentials in a response inhibition task. Neurosci Lett. 2004;368:314–318. [PubMed] 241. Almasy L, Porjesz B, Blangero J, et al. Heritability of event-related brain potentials in families with a history of alcoholism. Am J Med Genet. 1999;88:383–390. [PubMed] 242. O’Connor S, Morzorati S, Christian JC, Li TK. Heritable features of the auditory oddball event-related potential: peaks, latencies, morphology and topography. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 1994;92:115–125. [PubMed] 243. Carlson SR, Iacono WG, McGue M. P300 amplitude in nonalcoholic adolescent twin pairs who become discordant for alcoholism as adults. Psychophysiology. 2004;41:841–844. [PubMed] 244. Iacono WG, Carlson SR, Malone SM, McGue M. P3 event-related potential amplitude and the risk for disinhibitory disorders in adolescent boys. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:750–757. [PubMed] 245. Bauer LO, Hesselbrock VM. P300 decrements in teenagers with conduct problems: implications for substance abuse risk and brain development. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:263–272. [PubMed] 246. Costa L, Bauer L, Kuperman S, et al. Frontal P300 decrements, alcohol dependence, and antisocial personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:1064–1071. [PubMed] 247. Habeych ME, Charles PJ, Sclabassi RJ, Kirisci L, Tarter RE. Direct and mediated associations between P300 amplitude in childhood and substance use disorders outcome in young adulthood. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:76–82. [PubMed] 248. Gottesman II, Gould TD. The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:636–645. [PubMed] 249. Sangal RB, Sangal JM. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: use of cognitive evoked potential (P300) to predict treatment response. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117:1996–2006. [PubMed] 250. Ernst M, Grant SJ, London ED, Contoreggi CS, Kimes AS, Spurgeon L. Decision making in adolescents with behavior disorders and adults with substance abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:33–40. [PubMed] 251. Schutter DJ, de Haan EH, van Honk J. Anterior asymetrical alpha activity predicts Iowa gambling performance: Distinctly but reversed. Neuropsychologia. 2004;42:939–943. [PubMed] 252. Levesque J, Joanette Y, Mensour B, et al. Neural basis of emotional self-regulation in childhood. Neuroscience. 2004;129:361–369. [PubMed] 253. Levesque J, Eugene F, Joanette Y, et al. Neural circuitry underlying voluntary suppression of sadness. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:502–510. [PubMed] 254. Ochsner KN, Bunge SA, Gross JJ, Gabrieli JD. Rethinking feelings: An FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. J Cogn Neurosci. 2002;14:1215–1229. [PubMed] 255. Schweinsburg AD, Paulus MP, Barlett VC, et al. An FMRI study of response inhibition in youths with a family history of alcoholism. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:391–394. [PubMed] 256. Twitchell GR, Hanna GL, Cook EH, Fitzgerald HE, Little KY, Zucker RA. Overt behavior problems and serotonergic function in middle childhood among male and female offspring of alcoholic fathers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22:1340–1348. [PubMed] 257. Twitchell GR, Hanna GL, Cook EH, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA. Serotonergic function, behavioral disinhibition, and negative affect in children of alcoholics: the moderating effects of puberty. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24:972–979. [PubMed] 258. Askenazy F, Caci H, Myquel M, Darcourt G, Lecrubier Y. Relationship between impulsivity and platelet serotonin content in adolescents. Psychiatry Res. 2000;94:19–28. [PubMed]
259. Mezzich AC, Tarter RE, Moss HB, Yao JK, Hsieh YC, Kirisci L. Platelet monoamine-oxidase activity and temperament and personality in adolescent female substance-abusers. Personality and Individual Differences. 1994;16:417–424.
260. Twitchell GR, Hanna GL, Cook EH, Stoltenberg SF, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA. Serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism genotype is associated with behavioral disinhibition and negative affect in children of alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25:953–959. [PubMed] 261. Nilsson KW, Sjoberg RL, Damberg M, et al. Role of the serotonin transporter gene and family function in adolescent alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:564–570. [PubMed] 262. Berman ME, Tracy JI, Coccaro EF. The serotonin hypothesis of aggression revisited. Clin Psychol Rev. 1997;17:651–665. [PubMed] 263. Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Glennon JC, Robbins TW. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonists have opposing effects on a measure of impulsivity: interactions with global 5-HT depletion. Psychopharmacology. 2004;176:376–385. [PubMed] 264. Winstanley CA, Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Robbins TW. Fractionating impulsivity: contrasting effects of central 5-HT depletion on different measures of impulsive behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1331–1343. [PubMed] 265. Oreland L. Platelet monoamine oxidase, personality and alcoholism: the rise, fall and resurrection. Neurotoxicology. 2004;25:79–89. [PubMed] 266. Oreland L, Hallman J, Damberg M. Platelet MAO and personality—function and dysfunction. Curr Med Chem. 2004;11:2007–2016. [PubMed] 267. Naranjo CA, Knoke DM. The role of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in reducing alcohol consumption. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62 (Suppl 20):18–25. [PubMed] 268. Conner BT, Noble EP, Berman SM, et al. DRD2 genotypes and substance use in adolescent children of alcoholics. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;79:379–387. [PubMed] 269. Thompson J, Thomas N, Singleton A, et al. D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) TaqI polymorphism: reduced dopamine D2 receptor binding in the human striatum associated with the A1 allele. Pharmacogenetics. 1997;7:479–484. [PubMed] 270. Jonsson EG, Nothen MM, Grunhage F, et al. Polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene and their relationships to striatal dopamine receptor density of healthy volunteers. Mol Psychiatry. 1999;4:290–296. [PubMed] 271. Pohjalainen T, Rinne JO, Nagren K, et al. The A1 allele of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene predicts low D2 receptor availability in healthy volunteers. Mol Psychiatry. 1998;3:256–260. [PubMed] 272. Barrot M, Marinelli M, Abrous DN, Rouge-Pont F, Le Moal M, Piazza PV. The dopaminergic hyper-responsiveness of the shell of the nucleus accumbens is hormone-dependent. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:973–979. [PubMed] 273. Marinelli M, Aouizerate B, Barrot M, Le Moal M, Piazza PV. Dopamine-dependent responses to morphine depend on glucocorticoid receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998;95:7742–7747. [PubMed] 274. Saal D, Dong Y, Bonci A, Malenka RC. Drugs of abuse and stress trigger a common synaptic adaptation in dopamine neurons. Neuron. 2003;37:577–582. [PubMed] 275. Moss HB, Vanyukov MM, Martin CS. Salivary cortisol responses and the risk for substance abuse in prepubertal boys. Biol Psychiatry. 1995;38:547–555. [PubMed]
276. Pajer K, Gardner W, Kirillova GP, Vanyukov MM. Sex differences in cortisol level and neurobehavioral disinhibition in children of substance abusers. J Child Adoles Subst. 2001;10:65–76.
277. Dawes MA, Dorn LD, Moss HB, et al. Hormonal and behavioral homeostasis in boys at risk for substance abuse. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1999;55:165–176. [PubMed]
278. Rao U, Hammen C, Poland RE. Relationships among depression, cigarette smoking and HPA activity in adolescents. Annual Meeting of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology; Sydney, Australia. 2003.
279. Cadoret RJ, Yates WR, Troughton E, Woodworth G, Stewart MA. Adoption study demonstrating two genetic pathways to drug abuse. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:42–52. [PubMed] 280. Rao U. Links between depression and substance abuse in adolescents: neurobiological mechanisms. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31(6 Suppl 1):S161–74. [PubMed] 281. Kagan J, Reznick JS, Snidman N. Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science. 1988;240:167–171. [PubMed] 282. Barden N. Implication of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the physiopathology of depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2004;29:185–193. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 283. Reul JM, Stec I, Soder M, Holsboer F. Chronic treatment of rats with the antidepressant amitriptyline attenuates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. Endocrinology. 1993;133:312–320. [PubMed] 284. Antonijevic IA. Depressive disorders—is it time to endorse different pathophysiologies? Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006;31:1–15. [PubMed] 285. Adinoff B, Junghanns K, Kiefer F, Krishnan-Sarin S. Suppression of the HPA axis stress-response: implications for relapse. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:1351–1355. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 286. Biscaia M, Marin S, Fernandez B, et al. Chronic treatment with CP 55,940 during the peri-adolescent period differentially affects the behavioural responses of male and female rats in adulthood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2003;170:301–308. [PubMed] 287. O’Shea M, Singh ME, McGregor IS, Mallet PE. Chronic cannabinoid exposure produces lasting memory impairment and increased anxiety in adolescent but not adult rats. J Psychopharmacol. 2004;18:502–508. [PubMed] 288. Viveros MP, Llorente R, Moreno E, Marco EM. Behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids in critical developmental periods. Behav Pharmacol. 2005;16:353–362. [PubMed] 289. White DA, Holtzman SG. Periadolescent morphine exposure alters subsequent behavioral sensitivity to morphine in adult rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;528:119–123. [PubMed] 290. Piper BJ, Meyer JS. Memory deficit and reduced anxiety in young adult rats given repeated intermittent MDMA treatment during the periadolescent period. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;79:723–731. [PubMed] 291. White AM, Truesdale MC, Bae JG, et al. Differential effects of ethanol on motor coordination in adolescent and adult rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;73:673–677. [PubMed] 292. Little PJ, Kuhn CM, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder HS. Differential effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996;20:1346–1351. [PubMed] 293. Silveri MM, Spear LP. Decreased sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol early in ontogeny. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22:670–676. [PubMed] 294. Varlinskaya EI, Spear LP. Acute ethanol withdrawal (hangover) and social behavior in adolescent and adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:40–50. [PubMed] 295. Doremus TL, Brunell SC, Varlinskaya EI, Spear LP. Anxiogenic effects during withdrawal from acute ethanol in adolescent and adult rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75:411–418. [PubMed] 296. Brasser SM, Spear NE. Physiological and behavioral effects of acute ethanol hangover in juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats. Behav Neurosci. 2002;116:305–320. [PubMed] 297. Li Q, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder HS. Developmental differences in the sensitivity of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs to ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:119–126. [PubMed] 298. Li Q, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder HS. Developmental differences in the sensitivity of hippocampal GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCS to ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27:2017–2022. [PubMed] 299. Schuckit MA, Smith TL, Beltran I, Waylen A, Horwood J, Davis JM. Performance of a self-report measure of the level of response to alcohol in 12- to 13-year-old adolescents. J Stud Alcohol. 2005;66:452–458. [PubMed] 300. Slawecki CJ, Ehlers CL. Enhanced prepulse inhibition following adolescent ethanol exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:1829–1836. [PubMed] 301. Acheson SK, Richardson R, Swartzwelder HS. Developmental changes in seizure susceptibility during ethanol withdrawal. Alcohol. 1999;18:23–26. [PubMed] 302. Slawecki CJ, Roth J. Comparison of the onset of hypoactivity and anxiety-like behavior during alcohol withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:598–607. [PubMed] 303. White AM, Ghia AJ, Levin ED, Swartzwelder HS. Binge pattern ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats: differential impact on subsequent responsiveness to ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24:1251–1256. [PubMed] 304. Siegmund S, Vengeliene V, Singer MV, Spanagel R. Influence of age at drinking onset on long-term ethanol self-administration with deprivation and stress phases. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:1139–1145. [PubMed] 305. Swartzwelder HS, Wilson WA, Tayyeb MI. Age-dependent inhibition of long-term potentiation by ethanol in immature versus mature hippocampus. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995;19:1480–1485. [PubMed] 306. Swartzwelder HS, Wilson WA, Tayyeb MI. Differential sensitivity of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic potentials to ethanol in immature versus mature hippocampus. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995;19:320–323. [PubMed] 307. Pyapali GK, Turner DA, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder HS. Age and dose-dependent effects of ethanol on the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation. Alcohol. 1999;19:107–111. [PubMed] 308. De Bellis MD, Clark DB, Beers SR, et al. Hippocampal volume in adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:737–744. [PubMed] 309. White AM, Swartzwelder HS. Hippocampal function during adolescence: a unique target of ethanol effects. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:206–220. [PubMed] 310. Yttri EA, Burk JA, Hunt PS. Intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent rats: dose-dependent impairments in trace conditioning. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:1433–1436. [PubMed] 311. Slawecki CJ, Betancourt M, Cole M, Ehlers CL. Periadolescent alcohol exposure has lasting effects on adult neurophysiological function in rats. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 2001;128:63–72. [PubMed] 312. Li Q, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder HS. Differential effect of ethanol on NMDA EPSCs in pyramidal cells in the posterior cingulate cortex of juvenile and adult rats. J Neurophysiol. 2002;87:705–711. [PubMed] 313. Crews FT, Braun CJ, Hoplight B, Switzer RC, III, Knapp DJ. Binge ethanol consumption causes differential brain damage in young adolescent rats compared with adult rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24:1712–1723. [PubMed] 314. Toni N, Buchs PA, Nikonenko I, Bron CR, Muller D. LTP promotes formation of multiple spine synapses between a single axon terminal and a dendrite. Nature. 1999;402:421–425. [PubMed] 315. Dudek SM, Bear MF. A biochemical correlate of the critical period for synaptic modification in the visual cortex. Science. 1989;246:673–675. [PubMed] 316. Zhang LI, Tao HW, Poo M. Visual input induces long-term potentiation of developing retinotectal synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:708–715. [PubMed] 317. Schlaggar BL, Fox K, O’Leary DD. Postsynaptic control of plasticity in developing somatosensory cortex. Nature. 1993;364:623–626. [PubMed] 318. Monti PM, Miranda R, Jr, Nixon K, et al. Adolescence: booze, brains, and behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29:207–220. [PubMed] 319. Brodie MS. Increased ethanol excitation of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area after chronic ethanol treatment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26:1024–1030. [PubMed] 320. Vastola BJ, Douglas LA, Varlinskaya EI, Spear LP. Nicotine-induced conditioned place preference in adolescent and adult rats. Physiol Behav. 2002;77:107–114. [PubMed] 321. Belluzzi JD, Lee AG, Oliff HS, Leslie FM. Age-dependent effects of nicotine on locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;174:389–395. [PubMed] 322. Adriani W, Macri S, Pacifici R, Laviola G. Peculiar vulnerability to nicotine oral self-administration in mice during early adolescence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:212–224. [PubMed] 323. Slawecki CJ, Ehlers CL. Lasting effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the electroencephalogram, event related potentials, and locomotor activity in the rat. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 2002;138:15–25. [PubMed] 324. Slawecki CJ, Ehlers CL. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on the cortical EEG are reduced following adolescent nicotine exposure. Neuropeptides. 2003;37:66–73. [PubMed] 325. Slawecki CJ, Thorsell A, Ehlers CL. Long-term neurobehavioral effects of alcohol or nicotine exposure in adolescent animal models. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:448–452. [PubMed] 326. Trauth JA, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. An animal model of adolescent nicotine exposure: Effects on gene expression and macromolecular constituents in rat brain regions. Brain Res. 2000;867:29–39. [PubMed] 327. Trauth JA, McCook EC, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. Modeling adolescent nicotine exposure: Effects on cholinergic systems in rat brain regions. Brain Res. 2000;873:18–25. [PubMed] 328. Collins SL, Wade D, Ledon J, Izenwasser S. Neurochemical alterations produced by daily nicotine exposure in periadolescent vs. adult male rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;502:75–85. [PubMed] 329. Trauth JA, Seidler FJ, McCook EC, Slotkin TA. Adolescent nicotine exposure causes persistent upregulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain regions. Brain Res. 1999;851:9–19. [PubMed] 330. Trauth JA, Seidler FJ, Ali SF, Slotkin TA. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces immediate and long-term changes in CNS noradrenergic and dopaminergic function. Brain Res. 2001;892:269–280. [PubMed] 331. McDonald CG, Dailey VK, Bergstrom HC, et al. Periadolescent nicotine administration produces enduring changes in dendritic morphology of medium spiny neurons from nucleus accumbens. Neurosci Lett. 2005;385:163–167. [PubMed] 332. Xu Z, Seidler FJ, Ali SF, Slikker W, Jr, Slotkin TA. Fetal and adolescent nicotine administration: effects on CNS serotonergic systems. Brain Res. 2001;914:166–178. [PubMed] 333. Xu Z, Seidler FJ, Cousins MM, Slikker W, Jr, Slotkin TA. Adolescent nicotine administration alters serotonin receptors and cell signaling mediated through adenylyl cyclase. Brain Res. 2002;951:280–292. [PubMed] 334. Schramm-Sapyta NL, Pratt AR, Winder DG. Effects of periadolescent versus adult cocaine exposure on cocaine conditioned place preference and motor sensitization in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;173:41–48. [PubMed] 335. Caster JM, Walker QD, Kuhn CM. Enhanced behavioral response to repeated-dose cocaine in adolescent rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;183:218–225. [PubMed] 336. Niculescu M, Ehrlich ME, Unterwald EM. Age-specific behavioral responses to psychostimulants in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005;82:280–288. [PubMed] 337. Collins SL, Izenwasser S. Cocaine differentially alters behavior and neurochemistry in periadolescent versus adult rats. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 2002;138:27–34. [PubMed] 338. Ehrlich ME, Sommer J, Canas E, Unterwald EM. Periadolescent mice show enhanced DeltaFosB upregulation in response to cocaine and amphetamine. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9155–9159. [PubMed] 339. Kosofsky BE, Genova LM, Hyman SE. Postnatal age defines specificity of immediate early gene induction by cocaine in developing rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 1995;351:27–40. [PubMed] 340. Karin M, Gallagher E. From JNK to pay dirt: jun kinases, their biochemistry, physiology and clinical importance. IUBMB Life. 2005;57:283–295. [PubMed] 341. Silva RM, Kuan CY, Rakic P, Burke RE. Mixed lineage kinase-c-jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway: a new therapeutic target in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2005;20:653–664. [PubMed] 342. Tischmeyer W, Grimm R. Activation of immediate early genes and memory formation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;55:564–574. [PubMed] 343. McClung CA, Ulery PG, Perrotti LI, Zachariou V, Berton O, Nestler EJ. DeltaFosB: a molecular switch for long-term adaptation in the brain. Brain Research: Molecular Brain Research. 2004;132:146–154. [PubMed] 344. Konkle AT, Bielajew C. Tracing the neuroanatomical profiles of reward pathways with markers of neuronal activation. Rev Neurosci. 2004;15:383–414. [PubMed] 345. Nestler EJ. Molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47 (Suppl 1):24–32. [PubMed] 346. Adriani W, Laviola G. Elevated levels of impulsivity and reduced place conditioning with d-amphetamine: two behavioral features of adolescence in mice. Behav Neurosci. 2003;117:695–703. [PubMed] 347. McPherson CS, Lawrence AJ. Exposure to amphetamine in rats during periadolescence establishes behavioural and extrastriatal neural sensitization in adulthood. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005:1–16. [PubMed] 348. Bolanos CA, Barrot M, Berton O, Wallace-Black D, Nestler EJ. Methylphenidate treatment during pre- and periadolescence alters behavioral responses to emotional stimuli at adulthood. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:1317–1329. [PubMed] 349. Heyser CJ, Pelletier M, Ferris JS. The effects of methylphenidate on novel object exploration in weanling and periadolescent rats. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:465–469. [PubMed] 350. Vorhees CV, Reed TM, Morford LL, et al. Periadolescent rats (P41–50) exhibit increased susceptibility to D-methamphetamine-induced long-term spatial and sequential learning deficits compared to juvenile (P21–30 or P31–40) or adult rats (P51–60) Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005;27:117–134. [PubMed] 351. Collins SL, Izenwasser S. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats. Neuropharmacology. 2004;46:349–362. [PubMed] 352. McMillen BA, Davis BJ, Williams HL, Soderstrom K. Periadolescent nicotine exposure causes heterologous sensitization to cocaine reinforcement. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;509:161–164. [PubMed] 353. Collins SL, Montano R, Izenwasser S. Nicotine treatment produces persistent increases in amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity in periadolescent male but not female or adult male rats. Brain Research: Developmental Brain Research. 2004;153:175–187. [PubMed] 354. Partridge T. Are genetically informed designs genetically informative? Comment on McGue, Elkins, Walden, and Iacono (2005) and quantitative behavioral genetics. Dev Psychol. 2005;41:985–988. discussion 993–987. [PubMed] 355. Vanyukov MM, Kirisci L, Tarter RE, et al. Liability to substance use disorders: 2. A measurement approach. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003;27:517–526. [PubMed] 356. Vanyukov MM, Tarter RE, Kirisci L, Kirillova GP, Maher BS, Clark DB. Liability to substance use disorders: 1. Common mechanisms and manifestations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003;27:507–515. [PubMed] 357. Stallings MC, Corley RP, Hewitt JK, et al. A genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci influencing substance dependence vulnerability in adolescence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;70:295–307. [PubMed] 358. Twitchell GR, Hanna GL, Cook EH, Stoltenberg SF, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA. Serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism genotype is associated with behavioral disinhibition and negative affect in children of alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25:953–959. [PubMed]
359. Friedman AS, Terras A, Glassman K. Multimodel substance use intervention program for male delinquents. J Child Adolesc Subst. 2002;11:43–65.
360. Mason WA, Kosterman R, Hawkins JD, Haggerty KP, Spoth RL. Reducing adolescents’ growth in substance use and delinquency: Randomized trial effects of a parent-training prevention intervention. Prev Sci. 2003;4:203–212. [PubMed]