The first article of this issue (Taxman, Young, Wiersema, Rhodes, and Mitchell) presents an overview of the methodology of the NCJTP survey that captured information from state and local government agencies and private providers. Using a multilevel multistage sampling frame, the methodology is designed to examine treatment delivery networks in communities. This article also presents the purpose of the survey, instrumentation and key variables, sampling frame design, survey administration, response rates, and response analyses. The multilevel survey sample includes state-level executives, facility or unit administrators (state or local government, depending upon the agency), treatment administrators, and line staff. The survey team developed a strategy that involved collaboration with national associations (American Correctional Association, American Probation and Parole Association, Council of Juvenile Corrections Administrators, American Jail Association, National Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities, and National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors) in both the design and the administration of the survey. As this article shows, the survey administration itself reveals the complexity of the correctional system and provides insight into the complicated nature of the delivery of treatment services for offenders.
Two articles describe the programs and services offered in the vast array of correctional settings—prisons, juvenile residential facilities, jails and detention centers, and community corrections agencies (probation and parole)—for adult and juvenile offenders. The first of these (Taxman, Perdoni, and Harrison) presents survey results on programs and services available in adult corrections. The NCJTP survey found that substance abuse education and awareness are the most prevalent forms of services—offered in 74% of prisons, 61% of jails, and 53% of community correctional agencies. A companion article devoted to programs and services offered in the juvenile justice system (Young, Dembo, and Henderson) also found that education/general equivalency diploma programs and drug and alcohol education were the most prevalent services. Both articles report that although many agencies offer substance abuse services, the percentage of all eligible offenders who participate in drug treatment is very low: < 10% in both the adult and the juvenile correctional populations.
The survey was also designed to examine how organizational issues influence the adoption of "best practices," as identified through either expert consensus approaches or research studies. Friedmann, Taxman, and Henderson found that most adult programs report implementing < 60% of evidence-based practices assessed in the survey. Those treatment programs that used more consensus best practices were community based, were accredited, and had stronger connections to other community social services and other justice agencies; they were more performance oriented, with attention to measuring key offender outcomes, and tended to operate in a nonpunitive culture. A companion article on the juvenile justice system (Henderson, Young, Jainchill, Hawke, Farkas, and Davis) found that facilities with resources dedicated to training, internal support for new programming, and connections to other noncriminal justice agencies showed greater use of consensus-based practices.
Two other articles discuss organizational issues involved in the treatment delivery system for offenders. Grella, Greenwell, Prendergast, Farabee, Hall, Cartier, and Burdon identified factors associated with the use of different therapeutic orientations (therapeutic communities, 12-step programs, and cognitive–behavioral therapy) in community programs that offer services to offenders. Oser, StantonTindall, and Leukefeld identified five organizational factors governing the provision of HIV testing in both correctional agencies and community-based treatment programs, including facility centralization of power, complexity, interconnectedness, resources, and size.