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A population-based case-control study of oral contraceptive use and breast cancer was carried out among young women (less than 43 years of age) at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington. Use of oral contraceptives before first pregnancy did not materially differ between cases or controls. The rate ratio estimate of breast cancer incidence in women who had used oral contraceptives before first pregnancy compared to those who had not was 0.9 (95% CI = 0.4, 2.1). There were no meaningful patterns of association between breast cancer and duration of use or formulation of oral contraceptive used before first pregnancy.