Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of brjcancerBJC HomepageBJC Advance online publicationBJC Current IssueSubmitting an article to BJCWeb feeds
Br J Cancer. Jan 1989; 59(1): 119–125.
PMCID: PMC2246966
Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.
J. A. Cooper, T. E. Rohan, E. L. Cant, D. J. Horsfall, and W. D. Tilley
MRC Epidemiology, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex.
Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopausal women. Both oral contraceptive use (P = 0.055) and cigarette smoking (P = 0.047) were associated with increased (unadjusted) risk of ER- cancer, while having little association with risk of ER+ cancer. Most dietary factors had little association with risk of either cancer type, the main exception being the reduction in risk of ER- breast cancer with increasing beta-carotene intake (P for trend = 0.017). In general, however, links with the factors examined were not strong enough to suggest different causal pathways for ER- and ER+ breast cancer.
Full text
Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page.
Articles from British Journal of Cancer are provided here courtesy of
Cancer Research UK