A monoclonal antibody that blocks the light-activated cyclic GMP (cGMP) pathway in frog photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) has been obtained. The antibody (4A) inhibits guanine nucleotide binding to G-protein, the intermediate that links rhodopsin excitation to cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE), inhibiting light-induced PDE activity as a consequence. Antibody inhibition of the light-activated cGMP pathway is complete at a stoichiometry of approximately one antibody per G-protein in the mixture, which indicates high specificity of the inhibition. Inhibition is more pronounced than that caused by PDE inhibitors such as isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) or Ro 20-1724. Antibody 4A has the further effect of inhibiting the phosphorylation of two low molecular weight proteins, components I and II, whose phosphorylation normally can be stimulated by raising cGMP levels. The inhibition is not overridden by adding cGMP, which suggests that the G-protein influences these phosphorylations by a pathway distinct from its action on cGMP concentration. Antibody 4A may prove useful as a probe of the relevance of the cGMP pathway to visual transduction in living photoreceptors. Six other monoclonal antibodies to G-protein, as well as six monoclonal antibodies to rhodopsin and one to PDE, do not block light-activated guanine nucleotide binding, PDE activity, or ROS protein phosphorylations.