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Cytotoxic effector T cells of F1 (BALB/c X BALB.B) (H-2d/b) mice immunized against the minor histocompatibility differences of C57BL/10 (H-2b) can lyse targets from C57BL/10, but cannot lyse B10.D2 (H-2d) targets. Despite this lack of cross-reaction in the cytotoxic assay, C57BL/10 cells do prime F1 (BALB/c X BALB.B) mice for a secondary cytotoxic response to B10.D2. C57BL/10-primed, B10.D2-boosted cytotoxic cells lyse B10.D2 targets but not C57BL/10 targets. DBA/2 (H-2d) spleen cells or thymocytes prime F1 mice for a secondary response to DBA/2, B10.D2, and C57BL/10 cells, but DBA/2 mastocytes, P815, do not prime for a response to C57BL/10. Whether H-2 congenic lymphoid cells express minor histocompatibility determinants which cross-react at the cytotoxic T-cell level or the helper T-cell level is discussed.