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A novel basic heparin-binding monocyte chemotactic factor (MCF) was purified to homogeneity from the conditioned media of human myelomonocytic cell line THP-1 based on its in vitro monocyte chemotactic activity. The purified MCF was homogenous and estimated to be 15 kD on SDS-PAGE. Purified MCF stimulated normal human monocytes to be growth inhibitory in vitro at 2-3 d for several human tumor cell lines. This represents the first report of the identification and purification of a chemoattractant cytokine that also activates monocytes but is distinct from interferons and other known cytokines.