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The association between T3 and the T cell antigen receptor was examined using the T3 bearing T cell leukemic line Jurkat. A monoclonal antibody, C305, was produced, which reacted with idiotypic-like determinants expressed on Jurkat. The molecule with which this antibody reacted was a disulfide-linked heterodimer of 90 kD, composed of polypeptides of 42 and 54 kD. Thus, C305 reacted with a molecule with characteristics of the putative T cell antigen receptor described by others. A series of mutants of Jurkat, induced with ethyl methane sulfonate or radiation, was selected for T3 or antigen receptor negativity. In every instance, there was a concomitant loss of both T3 and the antigen receptor as assessed by quantitative absorption, indirect immunofluorescence, and antibody plus complement-mediated cytotoxicity. The absence of antigen receptor molecules was confirmed on diagonal gels, excluding the possibility that conformational changes of the antigen receptor on such T3-negative mutants were responsible for the failure of such mutants to react with C305. Moreover, in a mutant that expressed a marked decrease in the level of T3 expression, there was a comparable decrease in the expression of antigen receptor determinants. These results suggest that there is an obligate requirement for the coexpression of T3 and the T cell antigen receptor. Furthermore, attempts to activate such mutants with the lectin phytohemagglutinin suggested that the expression of T3 and/or the antigen receptor was required for activation of these cells.