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gpL115 is a lymphocyte surface component that is deficient in patients with the X-chromosome-linked immune deficiency Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (6). The glycoprotein nature of gpL115 is demonstrated through labeling in carbohydrate moieties by [3H]NaBH4 and its synthesis by lymphocytes through labeling with [35S]methionine. Native gpL115 adheres to wheat germ lectin-Sepharose and sialidase-treated gpL115 does not adhere, indicating that native gpL115 adheres via clusters of sialic acid residues. When tested on peanut lectin, which shows specificity for the disaccharide Gal beta 1-3GalNAc, gpL115 is nonadherent and sialidase- treated gpL115 is adherent, indicating the presence of the sequence sialic acid-Gal beta 1-3GalNAc, which is characteristic for O-linked (mucin-type, acidic-type) carbohydrates. A surface glycoprotein with all the above characteristics was found on the lymphoblastoid cell line CEM. CEM cells were used as immunogen to generate the monoclonal antibody L10, an IgG1, which binds native and sialidase-treated gpL115 . Sialidase-treatment of gpL115 significantly alters its physical properties, reducing its electrophoretic mobility and changing its behavior on isoelectrofocusing. Cumulatively, these findings indicate that gpL115 , like glycophorin of erythrocytes and GPIb of platelets, is a sialoglyco protein with significant quantities of O-linked carbohydrate. On treatment with limiting sialidase concentrations, gpL115 of normal lymphocytes is transformed into a series of partially desialylated species of decreasing electrophoretic mobility. This finding resembles the situation with lymphocytes of some Wiskott- Aldrich syndrome patients. Lymphocytes of eight Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients were found to be deficient in 125I-labeled gpL115 . Lymphocytes from three of these patients displayed an abnormal 125I- component of apparent mol wt 135,000.