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Anesth Prog. 1986 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 225–229.
PMCID: PMC2177493

Effects of Lidocaine with Epinephrine on Fear Related Arousal Among Dental Phobics


The effects of 2% lidocaine containing 72 μg epinephrine on fear related arousal were tested using a cross-over design on dental patients fearful of injections and other dental procedures. Heart rate and body movement in the dental operatory were monitored, and subjects' self-reported upset in the Epinephrine condition than in the No-Epinephrine condition (F = 4.8, p = .04), but the clinical significance was negligible. No interaction between initial fear levels and the drug condition could be established. Results suggest that pre-existing dental fear levels may produce greater self-report, behavioral or physiological arousal in the dental operatory than exogenous epinephrine.

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Selected References

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Articles from Anesthesia Progress are provided here courtesy of American Dental Society of Anesthesiology