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Various dehydrogenases, reductases, and electron transfer proteins involved in respiratory sulfate reduction by Desulfovibrio gigas have been localized with respect to the periplasmic space, membrane, and cytoplasm. This species was grown on a lactate-sulfate medium, and the distribution of enzyme activities and concentrations of electron transfer components were determined in intact cells, cell fractions prepared with a French press, and lysozyme spheroplasts. A significant fraction of formate dehydrogenase was demonstrated to be localized in the periplasmic space in addition to hydrogenase and some c-type cytochrome. Cytochrome b, menaquinone, fumarate reductase, and nitrite reductase were largely localized on the cytoplasmic membrane. Fumarate reductase was situated on the inner aspect on the membrane, and the nitrite reductase appeared to be transmembraneous. Adenylylsulfate reductase, bisulfite reductase (desulfoviridin), pyruvate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase activities were localized in the cytoplasm. Significant amounts of hydrogenase and c-type cytochromes were also detected in the cytoplasm. Growth of D. gigas on a formate-sulfate medium containing acetate resulted in a 10-fold increase in membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase and a doubling of c-type cytochromes. Growth on fumarate with formate resulted in an additional increase in b-type cytochrome compared with lactate-sulfate-grown cells.