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Tonsillitis was studied in 317 patients over two years. A short course of antibiotics was found to be highly effective in clearing streptococci from the throat, but it was questionable whether the clearance shown represented eradication. It is suggested that the duration of treatment should be on a selective basis, using a ten-day, or short antibiotic course, according to circumstances. Withholding antibiotics altogether is not considered advisable. I could not differentiate between streptococcal and presumed viral tonsillitis on clinical grounds. The resulting possible policies of treatment are discussed. I suggest giving all cases of tonsillitis antibiotics at the time of presentation.