PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
J Bacteriol. 1984 November; 160(2): 586–590.
PMCID: PMC214774

DNA adenine methylation of GATC sequences appeared recently in the Escherichia coli lineage.

Abstract

We have examined the presence of methylated adenine at GATC sequences (Dam phenotype) in the DNA of 23 eubacteria and 13 archaebacteria by using isoshizomer restriction enzymes. We have found a completely Dam+ phenotype in bacteria of nine genera related to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Parvobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae, and in the five cyanobacteria tested. We have found a partial Dam+ phenotype in the two archaebacteria Halobacterium saccharovorum and Methanobacterium sp. strain Ivanov. All of the other archaebacteria (three genera) and eubacteria (nine genera) tested were Dam-. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the evolutionary tree of Fox et al. (Science 209:457-463, 1980), indicates that dam methylation in the Escherichia coli lineage appeared recently in bacterial evolution and is restricted to a small range of closely related bacteria.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (935K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Baumann P, Baumann L, Woolkalis MJ, Bang SS. Evolutionary relationships in vibrio and Photobacterium: a basis for a natural classification. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1983;37:369–398. [PubMed]
  • Brock TD, Brock KM, Belly RT, Weiss RL. Sulfolobus: a new genus of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living at low pH and high temperature. Arch Mikrobiol. 1972;84(1):54–68. [PubMed]
  • Brooks JE, Blumenthal RM, Gingeras TR. The isolation and characterization of the Escherichia coli DNA adenine methylase (dam) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Feb 11;11(3):837–851. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Claverys JP, Roger M, Sicard AM. Excision and repair of mismatched base pairs in transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Gen Genet. 1980 Apr;178(1):191–201. [PubMed]
  • Dreiseikelmann B, Wackernagel W. Absence in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus of the sequence-specific deoxyribonucleic acid methylation that is conferred in Escherichia coli K-12 by the dam and dcm enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1981 Jul;147(1):259–261. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dybvig K, Swinton D, Maniloff J, Hattman S. Cytosine methylation of the sequence GATC in a mycoplasma. J Bacteriol. 1982 Sep;151(3):1420–1424. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fox GE, Stackebrandt E, Hespell RB, Gibson J, Maniloff J, Dyer TA, Wolfe RS, Balch WE, Tanner RS, Magrum LJ, et al. The phylogeny of prokaryotes. Science. 1980 Jul 25;209(4455):457–463. [PubMed]
  • Gelinas RE, Myers PA, Roberts RJ. Two sequence-specific endonucleases from Moraxella bovis. J Mol Biol. 1977 Jul;114(1):169–179. [PubMed]
  • Glickman B, van den Elsen P, Radman M. Induced mutagenesis in dam- mutants of Escherichia coli: a role for 6-methyladenine residues in mutation avoidance. Mol Gen Genet. 1978 Jul 25;163(3):307–312. [PubMed]
  • Gómez-Eichelmann MC. Deoxyribonucleic acid adenine and cytosine methylation in Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi. J Bacteriol. 1979 Nov;140(2):574–579. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Greene PJ, Heyneker HL, Bolivar F, Rodriguez RL, Betlach MC, Covarrubias AA, Backman K, Russel DJ, Tait R, Boyer HW. A general method for the purification of restriction enzymes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1978 Jul;5(7):2373–2380. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hori H, Osawa S. Evolutionary change in 5S RNA secondary structure and a phylogenic tree of 54 5S RNA species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jan;76(1):381–385. [PubMed]
  • Lacks SA, Dunn JJ, Greenberg B. Identification of base mismatches recognized by the heteroduplex-DNA-repair system of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cell. 1982 Dec;31(2 Pt 1):327–336. [PubMed]
  • Lacks S, Greenberg B. Complementary specificity of restriction endonucleases of Diplococcus pneumoniae with respect to DNA methylation. J Mol Biol. 1977 Jul;114(1):153–168. [PubMed]
  • Lu AL, Clark S, Modrich P. Methyl-directed repair of DNA base-pair mismatches in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Aug;80(15):4639–4643. [PubMed]
  • Marinus MG, Morris NR. Biological function for 6-methyladenine residues in the DNA of Escherichia coli K12. J Mol Biol. 1974 May 15;85(2):309–322. [PubMed]
  • McConnell DJ, Searcy DG, Sutcliffe JG. A restriction enzyme Tha I from the thermophilic mycoplasma Thermoplasma acidophilum. Nucleic Acids Res. 1978 Jun;5(6):1729–1739. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • SEHGAL SN, GIBBONS NE. Effect of some metal ions on the growth of Halobacterium cutirubrum. Can J Microbiol. 1960 Apr;6:165–169. [PubMed]
  • Radding CM. Genetic recombination: strand transfer and mismatch repair. Annu Rev Biochem. 1978;47:847–880. [PubMed]
  • Radman M, Villani G, Boiteux S, Kinsella AR, Glickman BW, Spadari S. Replicational fidelity: mechanisms of mutation avoidance and mutation fixation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979;43(Pt 2):937–946. [PubMed]
  • Razin A, Friedman J. DNA methylation and its possible biological roles. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1981;25:33–52. [PubMed]
  • Roberts RJ. Restriction and modification enzymes and their recognition sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Jan 11;11(1):r135–r167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schnabel H, Zillig W, Pfäffle M, Schnabel R, Michel H, Delius H. Halobacterium halobium phage øH. EMBO J. 1982;1(1):87–92. [PubMed]
  • Streeck RE. Single-strand and double-strand cleavage at half-modified and fully modified recognition sites for the restriction nucleases Sau3a and Taqi. Gene. 1980 Dec;12(3-4):267–275. [PubMed]
  • Sussenbach JS, Monfoort CH, Schiphof R, Stobberingh EE. A restriction endonuclease from Staphylococcus aureus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1976 Nov;3(11):3193–3202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Szyf M, Gruenbaum Y, Urieli-Shoval S, Razin A. Studies on the biological role of DNA methylation: V. The pattern of E.coli DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Nov 25;10(22):7247–7259. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vanyushin BF, Belozersky AN, Kokurina NA, Kadirova DX. 5-methylcytosine and 6-methylamino-purine in bacterial DNA. Nature. 1968 Jun 15;218(5146):1066–1067. [PubMed]
  • Zyskind JW, Cleary JM, Brusilow WS, Harding NE, Smith DW. Chromosomal replication origin from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi functions in Escherichia coli: oriC consensus sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Mar;80(5):1164–1168. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)