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Both the low calcium response and virulence in Yersinia pestis strain KIM5 are mediated by genes located on the 75.4-kilobase plasmid pCD1. The results presented here demonstrate the existence of two new genetic loci of pCD1 whose expression is regulated in response to temperature. Levels of transcription in the trtA and trtB loci were elevated 12- to 16-fold at 37 degrees C compared with levels of transcription at 30 degrees C. In addition, the absolute levels of transcription were the highest that have been reported for genes on pCD1. Mutations in trtB also abolished production of the V antigen. Thermal induction at these loci was dramatically reduced in strains harboring a Tn5 insertion in the lcrF locus of pCD1. lcrF lies 33 and 13 kilobases from the trtA and trtB loci, respectively. Thus, lcrF is a positive regulatory gene responsible for temperature-induced transcription of genes required for the low calcium response.