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Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) allowed the circumvention of the thymus-derived (T) cell helper function otherwise required for the antibody response in mice to human gamma globulin (HGG). In an analogous fashion, the state of tolerance to HGG, existing at a time when bone marrow-derived (B) cells had lost their unresponsiveness, could be terminated by the injection of both immunogenic HGG and endotoxin, but by neither given alone. However, no effect on tolerance to HGG could be observed when this regimen was followed at a time when B cells were tolerant. After the spontaneous recovery from tolerance in B cells, it seemed that specific priming was occurring in that population. This phenomenon was observed either by the injection of endotoxin and HGG or by the adoptive transfer of cells into irradiated hosts. These data have been discussed in the light of potential autoimmune manifestations that could theoretically follow a simultaneous gram-negative bacterial infection along with a release of self-antigen.