Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. 1996 April 1; 133(1): 85–97.
PMCID: PMC2120769

Pds1p is required for faithful execution of anaphase in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae


To identify mutations that cause defects in mitosis, a collection of mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened by a rapid visual assay for abnormal chromosome segregation. From this screen we identified one mutation, pds1-1 that was independently identified in an alternative screen for mutants that exhibit inviability after transient exposure to nocodazole and precocious disassociation of sister chromatids (Guacci, V., A. Yamamoto, A. Strunnikov, J. Kingsbury, E. Hogan, P. Meluh, and D. Koshland. 1993. CSH Symp. Quant. Biol. 58:677- 685; Yamamoto, T.J., G. Li, B. Schaar, I. Szilak, and D.W. Cleveland. 1992. Nature (Lond.). 359:536-539). At 23 degrees C pds1-1 mutants exhibit frequent cell death and a 300-fold increase in chromosome loss compared to wild type. At 37 degrees C pds1-1 cells fail to elongate their spindles during anaphase. This spindle defect of pds1 mutants results from a temperature-sensitive step that occurs around the G1/S boundary about the time of spindle assembly. In the absence of spindle elongation pds1 mutants undergo cytokinesis, leading to the missegregation of both chromosomes and spindle pole bodies. After abnormal cell division pds1-1 mutants also initiate new rounds of DNA replication, spindle pole body duplication, and bud formation. Thus, in the pds1-1 mutant at 37 degrees C, cell cycle progression is uncoupled from the completion of anaphase. A pds1 deletion allele has similar phenotypes to the original allele. Taken together these results suggest that Pds1 protein plays an important role in chromosome segregation at 23 degrees C and an essential role for this process at 37 degrees C. The PDS1 gene encodes a novel 42-kD nuclear protein that has both basic and acidic domains. The level of PDS1 mRNA varies with the cell cycle with maximal accumulation around the G1/S boundary. The stability of Pds1 protein also appears to change during the cell cycle as overproduced Pds1p is stable in S and M but degraded in early G1. Therefore, expression of Pds1p is regulated apparently both transcriptionally and postranslationally during the cell cycle. The phenotypes of pds1 mutants and expression pattern of Pds1p are discussed in the context of other spindle-defective mutants and the knowledge that Pds1 protein is an inhibitor of anaphase (Yamamoto, T.J., G. Li, B. Schaar, I. Szilak, and D.W. Cleveland. 1992. Nature (Lond.). 359:536-539).

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.3M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol. 1990 Oct 5;215(3):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Amon A, Irniger S, Nasmyth K. Closing the cell cycle circle in yeast: G2 cyclin proteolysis initiated at mitosis persists until the activation of G1 cyclins in the next cycle. Cell. 1994 Jul 1;77(7):1037–1050. [PubMed]
  • Baum P, Furlong C, Byers B. Yeast gene required for spindle pole body duplication: homology of its product with Ca2+-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(15):5512–5516. [PubMed]
  • Burns N, Grimwade B, Ross-Macdonald PB, Choi EY, Finberg K, Roeder GS, Snyder M. Large-scale analysis of gene expression, protein localization, and gene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1994 May 1;8(9):1087–1105. [PubMed]
  • Byers B, Goetsch L. Duplication of spindle plaques and integration of the yeast cell cycle. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1974;38:123–131. [PubMed]
  • Christianson TW, Sikorski RS, Dante M, Shero JH, Hieter P. Multifunctional yeast high-copy-number shuttle vectors. Gene. 1992 Jan 2;110(1):119–122. [PubMed]
  • Cooke CA, Heck MM, Earnshaw WC. The inner centromere protein (INCENP) antigens: movement from inner centromere to midbody during mitosis. J Cell Biol. 1987 Nov;105(5):2053–2067. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fitch I, Dahmann C, Surana U, Amon A, Nasmyth K, Goetsch L, Byers B, Futcher B. Characterization of four B-type cyclin genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1992 Jul;3(7):805–818. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Glotzer M, Murray AW, Kirschner MW. Cyclin is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway. Nature. 1991 Jan 10;349(6305):132–138. [PubMed]
  • Golsteyn RM, Mundt KE, Fry AM, Nigg EA. Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function. J Cell Biol. 1995 Jun;129(6):1617–1628. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grandin N, Reed SI. Differential function and expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-type cyclins in mitosis and meiosis. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;13(4):2113–2125. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guacci V, Yamamoto A, Strunnikov A, Kingsbury J, Hogan E, Meluh P, Koshland D. Structure and function of chromosomes in mitosis of budding yeast. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1993;58:677–685. [PubMed]
  • Guacci V, Hogan E, Koshland D. Chromosome condensation and sister chromatid pairing in budding yeast. J Cell Biol. 1994 May;125(3):517–530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hartwell LH, Smith D. Altered fidelity of mitotic chromosome transmission in cell cycle mutants of S. cerevisiae. Genetics. 1985 Jul;110(3):381–395. [PubMed]
  • Holm C, Goto T, Wang JC, Botstein D. DNA topoisomerase II is required at the time of mitosis in yeast. Cell. 1985 Jun;41(2):553–563. [PubMed]
  • Hoyt MA, He L, Loo KK, Saunders WS. Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-related gene products required for mitotic spindle assembly. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jul;118(1):109–120. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hunt T. Cell biology. Destruction's our delight... Nature. 1991 Jan 10;349(6305):100–101. [PubMed]
  • Hutter KJ, Eipel HE. Flow cytometric determinations of cellular substances in algae, bacteria, moulds and yeasts. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1978;44(3-4):269–282. [PubMed]
  • Johnston LH, Lowndes NF, Johnson AL, Sugino A. A cell-cycle-regulated trans-factor, DSC1, controls expression of DNA synthesis genes in yeast. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1991;56:169–176. [PubMed]
  • Kilmartin JV, Adams AE. Structural rearrangements of tubulin and actin during the cell cycle of the yeast Saccharomyces. J Cell Biol. 1984 Mar;98(3):922–933. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kilmartin JV, Dyos SL, Kershaw D, Finch JT. A spacer protein in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spindle poly body whose transcript is cell cycle-regulated. J Cell Biol. 1993 Dec;123(5):1175–1184. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Köhrer K, Domdey H. Preparation of high molecular weight RNA. Methods Enzymol. 1991;194:398–405. [PubMed]
  • Kyte J, Doolittle RF. A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. J Mol Biol. 1982 May 5;157(1):105–132. [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Lauzé E, Stoelcker B, Luca FC, Weiss E, Schutz AR, Winey M. Yeast spindle pole body duplication gene MPS1 encodes an essential dual specificity protein kinase. EMBO J. 1995 Apr 18;14(8):1655–1663. [PubMed]
  • Lew DJ, I Reed S. A proliferation of cyclins. Trends Cell Biol. 1992 Mar;2(3):77–81. [PubMed]
  • McCarroll RM, Fangman WL. Time of replication of yeast centromeres and telomeres. Cell. 1988 Aug 12;54(4):505–513. [PubMed]
  • McGrew JT, Goetsch L, Byers B, Baum P. Requirement for ESP1 in the nuclear division of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1992 Dec;3(12):1443–1454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McIntosh EM, Atkinson T, Storms RK, Smith M. Characterization of a short, cis-acting DNA sequence which conveys cell cycle stage-dependent transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Jan;11(1):329–337. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Navas TA, Zhou Z, Elledge SJ. DNA polymerase epsilon links the DNA replication machinery to the S phase checkpoint. Cell. 1995 Jan 13;80(1):29–39. [PubMed]
  • Osborne MA, Schlenstedt G, Jinks T, Silver PA. Nuf2, a spindle pole body-associated protein required for nuclear division in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1994 May;125(4):853–866. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roof DM, Meluh PB, Rose MD. Multiple kinesin-related proteins in yeast mitosis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1991;56:693–703. [PubMed]
  • Roof DM, Meluh PB, Rose MD. Kinesin-related proteins required for assembly of the mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jul;118(1):95–108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rose MD, Fink GR. KAR1, a gene required for function of both intranuclear and extranuclear microtubules in yeast. Cell. 1987 Mar 27;48(6):1047–1060. [PubMed]
  • Rose MD, Biggins S, Satterwhite LL. Unravelling the tangled web at the microtubule-organizing center. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993 Feb;5(1):105–115. [PubMed]
  • Rout MP, Kilmartin JV. Components of the yeast spindle and spindle pole body. J Cell Biol. 1990 Nov;111(5 Pt 1):1913–1927. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saunders WS, Hoyt MA. Kinesin-related proteins required for structural integrity of the mitotic spindle. Cell. 1992 Aug 7;70(3):451–458. [PubMed]
  • Saunders WS, Koshland D, Eshel D, Gibbons IR, Hoyt MA. Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin- and dynein-related proteins required for anaphase chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 1995 Feb;128(4):617–624. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sikorski RS, Hieter P. A system of shuttle vectors and yeast host strains designed for efficient manipulation of DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1989 May;122(1):19–27. [PubMed]
  • Spang A, Courtney I, Fackler U, Matzner M, Schiebel E. The calcium-binding protein cell division cycle 31 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a component of the half bridge of the spindle pole body. J Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;123(2):405–416. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strunnikov AV, Hogan E, Koshland D. SMC2, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene essential for chromosome segregation and condensation, defines a subgroup within the SMC family. Genes Dev. 1995 Mar 1;9(5):587–599. [PubMed]
  • Strunnikov AV, Larionov VL, Koshland D. SMC1: an essential yeast gene encoding a putative head-rod-tail protein is required for nuclear division and defines a new ubiquitous protein family. J Cell Biol. 1993 Dec;123(6 Pt 2):1635–1648. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Winey M, Byers B. Assembly and functions of the spindle pole body in budding yeast. Trends Genet. 1993 Sep;9(9):300–304. [PubMed]
  • Winey M, Goetsch L, Baum P, Byers B. MPS1 and MPS2: novel yeast genes defining distinct steps of spindle pole body duplication. J Cell Biol. 1991 Aug;114(4):745–754. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Winey M, Hoyt MA, Chan C, Goetsch L, Botstein D, Byers B. NDC1: a nuclear periphery component required for yeast spindle pole body duplication. J Cell Biol. 1993 Aug;122(4):743–751. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yen TJ, Li G, Schaar BT, Szilak I, Cleveland DW. CENP-E is a putative kinetochore motor that accumulates just before mitosis. Nature. 1992 Oct 8;359(6395):536–539. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press