The adhesive and signaling functions of integrins are regulated through their cytoplasmic domains. We identified a novel 111 residue polypeptide, designated beta 3-endonexin, that interacted with the cytoplasmic tail of the beta 3 integrin subunit in a yeast two-hybrid system. This interaction is structurally specific, since it was reduced by 64% by a point mutation in the beta 3 cytoplasmic tail (S752-->P) that disrupts integrin signaling. Moreover, this interaction is integrin subunit specific since it was not observed with the cytoplasmic tails of the alpha IIb, beta 1, or beta 2 subunits. beta 3- Endonexin fusion proteins bound selectively to detergent-solubilized beta 3 from platelets and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and beta 3-endonexin mRNA and protein were detected in platelets and other tissues. A related mRNA encoded a larger polypeptide that failed to bind to beta integrin tails. The apparent specificity of beta 3- endonexin for the beta 3 integrin subunit suggests potential mechanisms for selective modulation of integrin functions.