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Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), or interleukin 12 (IL- 12), is a heterodimeric lymphokine produced by B cells that has multiple effects on T and NK cell functions. NKSF at concentrations as low as 0.4 pM enhances the spontaneous cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) against a variety of tumor-derived target cell lines and virus-infected target cells. The combined treatment of PBL with NKSF and IL-2 results in a less than additive enhancement of cytotoxicity. NKSF enhances the cytotoxic activity of spontaneously cytotoxic CD16+CD5- NK cells and does not confer cytotoxic activity to CD16-CD5+ T cells. PBL from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly lower cytotoxic activity against tumor-derived target cells and virus-infected target cells than PBL from control healthy donors. Treatment of PBL from HIV- infected patients with NKSF and/or IL-2 results in an increase of NK cell cytotoxicity against both types of target cells to levels similar to or higher than those of untreated PBL from healthy donors. PBL from HIV-infected patients produce interferon gamma in response to NKSF and/or IL-2, although at levels 5- or 10-fold lower than those produced by PBL from healthy donors. The multiple biological effects of NKSF, its activity at very low molar concentrations, and its ability to synergize with other physiological stimuli suggest that NKSF/IL-12 is a lymphokine likely to have physiological importance and considerable therapeutic potential.