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Thorax. 2007 August; 62(8): 742.
PMCID: PMC2117282

Assessing the efficacy of spirometry for smoking cessation

In a recent issue of Thorax Bednarek et al1 presented interesting results from a large‐scale prospective cohort study on the effect of combining spirometric tests with simple smoking cessation advice in 3077 middle‐aged smokers with previously undetected airflow obstruction compared with smokers without airflow obstruction. Carbon monoxide‐validated smoking cessation rates after 12 months of follow‐up were 16% in subjects with airflow obstruction and 12% in smokers without airflow obstruction. These results are promising; however, we think that the authors' conclusion that spirometric screening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is effective in smoking cessation is too far‐reaching because of the limitations of the study design.

The conclusion by Bednarek et al1 that spirometry is efficacious in smoking cessation is limited by the fact that their study was not a randomised controlled trial but a prospective cohort study comparing smokers with previously undetected airflow obstruction with those without airflow obstruction. This might have introduced bias. It is possible, for example, that the smokers with airflow obstruction in this study might have been more susceptible to the “health warnings” given by the doctor who evaluated the spirometric test results with them. This higher susceptibility to health warnings is indicated by the fact that the follow‐up response rate was significantly higher among subjects with airflow obstruction (87%) than in those without airflow obstruction (62%), and that the follow‐up response rate was associated with disease severity (90% in moderate to severe airflow obstruction compared with 81% in mild obstruction). Another problem is that neither prospective nor retrospective data appear to have been collected on whether smokers used pharmacological aids for smoking cessation on their own initiative during the 12 months of follow‐up. The use of pharmacological aids for smoking cessation (such as nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or nortriptyline) is more effective than behavioural treatment (advice) alone.2,3 It cannot be ruled out that this use was differential, meaning that smokers with airflow obstruction were more likely to use this form of treatment in addition to advice from the physician.

The results of the study by Bednarek et al1 are promising and in line with results from other studies.4,5 However, evidence from well designed randomised controlled trials is needed on the efficacy of spirometry for smoking cessation. Smokers with airflow obstruction probably respond differently to smoking cessation treatment than those without airflow obstruction. It has been shown in previous studies that the former group is more likely to be older, to be more addicted to nicotine and tobacco and to have a longer smoking history (and therefore more pack years)—all of which are predictors of treatment outcome.6 We therefore suggest that the use of spirometry for smoking cessation should be tested in a homogeneous group of smokers with previously undetected airflow obstruction who are randomised to undergo either counselling including confrontation with spirometry or councelling without confrontation. We are currently conducting such a trial (ISRCTN 64481813).

References

1. Bednarek M, Gorecka D, Wielgomas J. et al Smokers with airway obstruction are more likely to quit smoking. Thorax 2006. 61869–873.873 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
2. Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L F. et al Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3).
3. Hughes J R, Stead L F, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(4).
4. Stratelis G, Mölstad S, Jakobsson P. et al The impact of repeated spirometry and smoking cessation advice on smokers with mild COPD. Scand J Prim Health Care 2006. 24133–139.139 [PubMed]
5. Gorecka D, Bednarek M, Nowinski A. et al Diagnosis of airflow limitation combined with smoking cessation advice increases stop‐smoking rate. Chest 2003. 1231916–1923.1923 [PubMed]
6. Jimenez‐Ruiz C A, Masa F, Miravitlles M. et al Smoking characteristics: differences in attitudes and dependence between healthy smokers and smokers with COPD. Chest 2001. 1191365–1370.1370 [PubMed]

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