Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. 1980 August 1; 86(2): 446–455.
PMCID: PMC2111489

Calcium control of waveform in isolated flagellar axonemes of chlamydomonas


The effect of Ca(++) on the waveform of reactivated, isolated axonemes of chlamydomonas flagella was investigated. Flagella were detached and isolated by the dibucaine procedure and demembranated by treatment with the detergent Nonidet; the resulting axomenes lack the flagellar membrane and basal bodies. In Ca(++)-buffered reactivation solutions containing 10(-6) M or less free Ca(++), the axonemes beat with a highly asymmetrical, predominantly planar waveform that closely resembled that of in situ flagella of forward swimming cells. In solutions containing 10(-4) M Ca(++), the axonemes beat with a symmetrical waveform that was very similar to that of in situ flagella during backward swimming. In 10(-5) M Ca(++), the axonemes were predominantly quiescent, a state that appears to be closely associated with changes in axomenal waveform or direction of beat in many organisms. Experiments in which the concentrations of free Ca(++), not CaATP(--) complex were independently varied suggested that free Ca(++), not CaATP(--), was responsible for the observed changes. Analysis of the flagellar ATPases associated with the isolated axonemes and the nonidet- soluble membrane-matrix fraction obtained during preparation of the axonemes showed that the axonemes lacked the 3.0S Ca(++)-activated ATPase, almost all of which was recovered in the membrane-matrix fraction. These results indicate that free Ca(++) binds directly to an axonemal component to alter flagellar waveform, and that neither the 3.0S CaATPase nor the basal bodies are directly involved in this change.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.1M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Allen C, Borisy GG. Structural polarity and directional growth of microtubules of Chlamydomonas flagella. J Mol Biol. 1974 Dec 5;90(2):381–402. [PubMed]
  • Bloodgood RA. Motility occurring in association with the surface of the Chlamydomonas flagellum. J Cell Biol. 1977 Dec;75(3):983–989. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Brokaw CJ. Calcium and flagellar response during the chemotaxis of bracken spermatozoids. J Cell Physiol. 1974 Feb;83(1):151–158. [PubMed]
  • Brokaw CJ, Josslin R, Bobrow L. Calcium ion regulation of flagellar beat symmetry in reactivated sea urchin spermatozoa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974 Jun 4;58(3):795–800. [PubMed]
  • Eckert R, Brehm P. Ionic mechanisms of excitation in Paramecium. Annu Rev Biophys Bioeng. 1979;8:353–383. [PubMed]
  • Gibbons BH. Intermittent swimming in live sea urchin sperm. J Cell Biol. 1980 Jan;84(1):1–12. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gibbons BH, Gibbons IR. Flagellar movement and adenosine triphosphatase activity in sea urchin sperm extracted with triton X-100. J Cell Biol. 1972 Jul;54(1):75–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gibbons BH, Gibbons IR. Calcium-induced quiescence in reactivated sea urchin sperm. J Cell Biol. 1980 Jan;84(1):13–27. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holwill ME, McGregor JL. Control of flagellar wave movement in Crithidia oncopelti. Nature. 1975 May 8;255(5504):157–158. [PubMed]
  • Holwill ME, McGregor JL. Effects of calcium on flagellar movement in the trypanosome Crithidia oncopelti. J Exp Biol. 1976 Aug;65(1):229–242. [PubMed]
  • Hyams JS, Borisy GG. Isolated flagellar apparatus of Chlamydomonas: characterization of forward swimming and alteration of waveform and reversal of motion by calcium ions in vitro. J Cell Sci. 1978 Oct;33:235–253. [PubMed]
  • Jamieson GA, Jr, Vanaman TC, Blum JJ. Presence of calmodulin in Tetrahymena. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Dec;76(12):6471–6475. [PubMed]
  • Kung C, Chang SY, Satow Y, Houten JV, Hansma H. Genetic dissection of behavior in paramecium. Science. 1975 May 30;188(4191):898–904. [PubMed]
  • Miles CA, Holwill ME. Asymmetric flagellar movement in relation to the orientation of the spore of Blastocladiella emersonii. J Exp Biol. 1969 Jun;50(3):683–687. [PubMed]
  • Naito Y, Kaneko H. Reactivated triton-extracted models o paramecium: modification of ciliary movement by calcium ions. Science. 1972 May 5;176(4034):523–524. [PubMed]
  • Naito Y, Kaneko H. Control of ciliary activities by adenosinetriphosphate and divalent cations in triton-extracted models of Paramecium caudatum. J Exp Biol. 1973 Jun;58(3):657–676. [PubMed]
  • Piperno G, Luck DJ. Axonemal adenosine triphosphatases from flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Purification of two dyneins. J Biol Chem. 1979 Apr 25;254(8):3084–3090. [PubMed]
  • Ringo DL. Flagellar motion and fine structure of the flagellar apparatus in Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol. 1967 Jun;33(3):543–571. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • SAGER R, GRANICK S. Nutritional studies with Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1953 Oct 14;56(5):831–838. [PubMed]
  • Salisbury JL, Floyd GL. Calcium-induced contraction of the rhizoplast of a quadriflagellate green alga. Science. 1978 Dec 1;202(4371):975–977. [PubMed]
  • Satir B, Sale WS, Satir P. Membrane renewal after dibucaine deciliation of Tetrahymena. Freeze-fracture technique, cilia, membrane structure. Exp Cell Res. 1976 Jan;97:83–91. [PubMed]
  • Satir P. Ionophore-mediated calcium entry induces mussel gill ciliary arrest. Science. 1975 Nov 7;190(4214):586–588. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt JA, Eckert R. Calcium couples flagellar reversal to photostimulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Nature. 1976 Aug 19;262(5570):713–715. [PubMed]
  • Summers KE, Gibbons IR. Adenosine triphosphate-induced sliding of tubules in trypsin-treated flagella of sea-urchin sperm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Dec;68(12):3092–3096. [PubMed]
  • Walter MF, Satir P. Calcium control of ciliary arrest in mussel gill cells. J Cell Biol. 1978 Oct;79(1):110–120. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walter MF, Satir P. Calcium does not inhibit active sliding of microtubules from mussel gill cilia. Nature. 1979 Mar 1;278(5699):69–70. [PubMed]
  • Warner FD, Satir P. The structural basis of ciliary bend formation. Radial spoke positional changes accompanying microtubule sliding. J Cell Biol. 1974 Oct;63(1):35–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Watanabe T, Flavin M. Nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes in Chlamydomonas flagella. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jan 10;251(1):182–192. [PubMed]
  • Witman GB, Plummer J, Sander G. Chlamydomonas flagellar mutants lacking radial spokes and central tubules. Structure, composition, and function of specific axonemal components. J Cell Biol. 1978 Mar;76(3):729–747. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press