Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. 1988 May; 170(5): 2012–2021.
PMCID: PMC211079

Modulation of Escherichia coli RecBCD activity by the bacteriophage lambda Gam and P22 Abc functions.


Plasmids that express the bacteriophage lambda gam gene or the P22 abc2 gene (with and without abc1) at controllable levels were placed in Escherichia coli and tested for effects on the activity of RecBCD. Like Gam, Abc2 inhibited the ATP-dependent exonuclease activity of RecBCD, apparently not by binding to DNA. However, Abc2-mediated inhibition was partial, while Gam-mediated inhibition was complete. Both Abc2 and Gam inhibited host system-mediated homologous recombination in a Chi-containing interval in the chromosome of a hybrid lambda phage; Abc2 inhibited it more strongly than Gam. Gam but not Abc2 spared a phage T4 gene 2 mutant from restriction by RecBCD; Abc2 exhibited weak sparing activity in combination with Abc1 and substantial activity in combination with both Abc1 and P22 homologous recombination function Erf. Either Gam or the combination of the lambda recombination functions Exo and Bet was sufficient to induce a mode of plasmid replication that produced linear multimers. The combination of Abc2, Abc1, and Erf also exhibited this activity. However, Erf was inactive, both by itself and in combination with Abc1; Abc2 had weak activity. These results indicate that Gam and Abc2 modulate the activity of RecBCD in significantly different ways. In comparison with lambda Gam, P22 Abc2 has a weak effect on RecBCD nuclease activity but a strong effect on its recombination-promoting activity.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Amundsen SK, Taylor AF, Chaudhury AM, Smith GR. recD: the gene for an essential third subunit of exonuclease V. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(15):5558–5562. [PubMed]
  • Barbour SD, Clark AJ. Biochemical and genetic studies of recombination proficiency in Escherichia coli. I. Enzymatic activity associated with recB+ and recC+ genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Apr;65(4):955–961. [PubMed]
  • Behme MT, Lilley GD, Ebisuzaki K. Postinfection control by bacteriophage T4 of Escherichia coli recBC nuclease activity. J Virol. 1976 Apr;18(1):20–25. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berget PB, Poteete AR, Sauer RT. Control of phage P22 tail protein expression by transcription termination. J Mol Biol. 1983 Mar 15;164(4):561–572. [PubMed]
  • Biek DP, Cohen SN. Identification and characterization of recD, a gene affecting plasmid maintenance and recombination in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986 Aug;167(2):594–603. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bolivar F, Rodriguez RL, Greene PJ, Betlach MC, Heyneker HL, Boyer HW, Crosa JH, Falkow S. Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles. II. A multipurpose cloning system. Gene. 1977;2(2):95–113. [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Cohen A, Clark AJ. Synthesis of linear plasmid multimers in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986 Jul;167(1):327–335. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dykstra CC, Prasher D, Kushner SR. Physical and biochemical analysis of the cloned recB and recC genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1984 Jan;157(1):21–27. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eichler DC, Lehman IR. On the role of ATP in phosphodiester bond hydrolysis catalyzed by the recBC deoxyribonuclease of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1977 Jan 25;252(2):499–503. [PubMed]
  • Enquist LW, Skalka A. Replication of bacteriophage lambda DNA dependent on the function of host and viral genes. I. Interaction of red, gam and rec. J Mol Biol. 1973 Apr 5;75(2):185–212. [PubMed]
  • Fenton AC, Poteete AR. Genetic analysis of the erf region of the bacteriophage P22 chromosome. Virology. 1984 Apr 15;134(1):148–160. [PubMed]
  • Friedman SA, Hays JB. Selective inhibition of Escherichia coli recBC activities by plasmid-encoded GamS function of phage lambda. Gene. 1986;43(3):255–263. [PubMed]
  • Hays JB, Smith TA, Friedman SA, Lee E, Coffman GL. RecF and RecBC function during recombination of nonreplicating, UV-irradiated phage lambda DNA and during other recombination processes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1984;49:475–483. [PubMed]
  • Hilliker S, Botstein D. Specificity of genetic elements controlling regulation of early functions in temperate bacteriophages. J Mol Biol. 1976 Sep 25;106(3):537–566. [PubMed]
  • Karu AE, Sakaki Y, Echols H, Linn S. The gamma protein specified by bacteriophage gamma. Structure and inhibitory activity for the recBC enzyme of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1975 Sep 25;250(18):7377–7387. [PubMed]
  • Liao SM, Wu TH, Chiang CH, Susskind MM, McClure WR. Control of gene expression in bacteriophage P22 by a small antisense RNA. I. Characterization in vitro of the Psar promoter and the sar RNA transcript. Genes Dev. 1987 Apr;1(2):197–203. [PubMed]
  • Lindahl G, Sironi G, Bialy H, Calendar R. Bacteriophage lambda; abortive infection of bacteria lysogenic for phage P2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Jul;66(3):587–594. [PubMed]
  • Murphy KC, Fenton AC, Poteete AR. Sequence of the bacteriophage P22 anti-recBCD (abc) genes and properties of P22 abc region deletion mutants. Virology. 1987 Oct;160(2):456–464. [PubMed]
  • Oliver DB, Goldberg EB. Protection of parental T4 DNA from a restriction exonuclease by the product of gene 2. J Mol Biol. 1977 Nov;116(4):877–881. [PubMed]
  • Pacumbaba R, Center MS. Partial purification and properties of a bacteriophage T7 inhibitor of the host exonuclease V activity. J Virol. 1975 Nov;16(5):1200–1207. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Poteete AR. Location and sequence of the erf gene of phage P22. Virology. 1982 Jun;119(2):422–429. [PubMed]
  • Poteete AR, Fenton AC. DNA-binding properties of the Erf protein of bacteriophage P22. J Mol Biol. 1983 Jan 15;163(2):257–275. [PubMed]
  • Poteete AR, Fenton AC. Lambda red-dependent growth and recombination of phage P22. Virology. 1984 Apr 15;134(1):161–167. [PubMed]
  • Sakaki Y. Inactivation of the ATP-dependent DNase of Escherichia coli after infection with double-stranded DNA phages. J Virol. 1974 Dec;14(6):1611–1612. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanderson KE, Roth JR. Linkage map of Salmonella typhimurium, Edition VI. Microbiol Rev. 1983 Sep;47(3):410–453. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Coulson AR, Hong GF, Hill DF, Petersen GB. Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA. J Mol Biol. 1982 Dec 25;162(4):729–773. [PubMed]
  • Sauer RT, Krovatin W, DeAnda J, Youderian P, Susskind MM. Primary structure of the immI immunity region of bacteriophage P22. J Mol Biol. 1983 Aug 25;168(4):699–713. [PubMed]
  • Sauer RT, Krovatin W, Poteete AR, Berget PB. Phage P22 tail protein: gene and amino acid sequence. Biochemistry. 1982 Nov 9;21(23):5811–5815. [PubMed]
  • Sironi G. Mutants of Escherichia coli unable to be lysogenized by the temperate bacteriophage P2. Virology. 1969 Feb;37(2):163–176. [PubMed]
  • Skalka AM. DNA replication--bacteriophage lambda. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1977;78:201–237. [PubMed]
  • Sutcliffe JG. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979;43(Pt 1):77–90. [PubMed]
  • Unger RC, Clark AJ. Interaction of the recombination pathways of bacteriophage lambda and its host Escherichia coli K12: effects on exonuclease V activity. J Mol Biol. 1972 Oct 14;70(3):539–548. [PubMed]
  • Williams JG, Radding CM. Partial purification and properties of an exonuclease inhibitor induced by bacteriophage Mu-1. J Virol. 1981 Aug;39(2):548–558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Winston F, Botstein D. Control of lysogenization by phage P22. I. The P22 cro gene. J Mol Biol. 1981 Oct 25;152(2):209–232. [PubMed]
  • Zagursky RJ, Hays JB. Expression of the phage lambda recombination genes exo and bet under lacPO control on a multi-copy plasmid. Gene. 1983 Sep;23(3):277–292. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)