PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
 
J Cell Biol. 1971 May 1; 49(2): 303–318.
PMCID: PMC2108322

THE RENEWAL OF ROD AND CONE OUTER SEGMENTS IN THE RHESUS MONKEY

Abstract

The renewal of retinal rod and cone outer segments has been studied by radioautography in rhesus monkeys examined 2 and 4 days after injection of leucine-3H. The cell outer segment consists of a stack of photosensitive, membranous discs. In both rods and cones some of the newly formed (radioactive) protein became distributed throughout the outer segment. Furthermore, in rods (but not in cones), there was a transverse band of concentrated radioactive protein slightly above the outer segment base 2 days after injection. This was due to the formation of new discs, into which labeled protein had been incorporated. At 4 days, these radioactive discs were located farther from the outer segment base. Repeated assembly of new discs had displaced them away from the basal assembly site and along the outer segment. Measurements of the displacement rate indicated that each retinal rod produces 80–90 discs per day, and that the entire complement of outer segment discs is replaced every 9–13 days. To compensate for the continual formation of new discs, groups of old discs are intermittently shed from the apical end of the cell and phagocytized by the pigment epithelium. Each pigment epithelial cell engulfs and destroys about 2000–4000 rod outer segment discs daily. The similarity between visual cells in the rhesus monkey and those in man suggests that the same renewal processes occur in the human retina.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.8M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • BAIRATI A, Jr, ORZALESI N. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE PIGMENT EPITHELIUM AND OF THE PHOTORECEPTOR-PIGMENT EPITHELIUM JUNCTION IN THE HUMAN RETINA. J Ultrastruct Res. 1963 Dec;41:484–496. [PubMed]
  • Bargoot FG, Williams TP, Beidler LM. The localization of radioactive amino acid taken up into the outer segments of frog (Rana pipiens) rods. Vision Res. 1969 Mar;9(3):385–391. [PubMed]
  • COHEN AI. The fine structure of the extrafoveal receptors of the Rhesus monkey. Exp Eye Res. 1961 Dec;1:128–136. [PubMed]
  • COHEN AI. NEW DETAILS OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE OUTER SEGMENTS AND CILIARY CONNECTIVES OF THE RODS OF HUMAN AND MACAQUE RETINAS. Anat Rec. 1965 May;152:63–79. [PubMed]
  • KACZUROWSKI MI. The pigment epithelium of the human eye. Am J Ophthalmol. 1962 Jan;53:79–92. [PubMed]
  • Kroll AJ, Machemer R. Experimental retinal detachment and reattachment in the rhesus monkey. Electron microscopic comparison of rods and cones. Am J Ophthalmol. 1969 Jul;68(1):58–77. [PubMed]
  • Matsubara T, Miyata M, Mizuno K. Radioisotopic studies on renewal of opsin. Vision Res. 1968 Sep;8(9):1139–1143. [PubMed]
  • Peters T, Jr, Ashley CA. An artefact in radioautography due to binding of free amino acids to tissues by fixatives. J Cell Biol. 1967 Apr;33(1):53–60. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Young RW. The renewal of photoreceptor cell outer segments. J Cell Biol. 1967 Apr;33(1):61–72. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Young RW. Passage of newly formed protein through the connecting cilium of retina rods in the frog. J Ultrastruct Res. 1968 Jun;23(5):462–473. [PubMed]
  • Young RW. A difference between rods and cones in the renewal of outer segment protein. Invest Ophthalmol. 1969 Apr;8(2):222–231. [PubMed]
  • Young RW. Shedding of discs from rod outer segments in the rhesus monkey. J Ultrastruct Res. 1971 Jan;34(1):190–203. [PubMed]
  • Young RW, Bok D. Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process. J Cell Biol. 1969 Aug;42(2):392–403. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Young RW, Bok D. Autoradiographic studies on the metabolism of the retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol. 1970 Jul;9(7):524–536. [PubMed]
  • Young RW, Droz B. The renewal of protein in retinal rods and cones. J Cell Biol. 1968 Oct;39(1):169–184. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press