1. Roe S. Deadly alliance: how government and industry chose weapons over workers. The [Toledo] Blade. 1999 Mar 28;
2. The deadly dust: thousands of nuclear weapons workers exposed to beryllium dust are sick or dying. ABC News, 20/20. 2000. Apr 19,
3. Henneberger PK, Goe SK, Miller WE, Doney B, Groce DW. Industries in the United States with airborne beryllium exposure and estimates of the number of current workers potentially exposed. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2004;1:648–59. [PubMed]
5. Hardy HL. Vorwald AJ. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects. Pneumoconiosis: beryllium, bauxite fumes, compensation: sixth Saranac symposium; New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc.; 1950. pp. 133–51.
6. Hacker BC. The dragon's tail: radiation safety in the Manhattan Project, 1942–1946. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; 1987.
7. Tumbelson R. Public relations problems in connection with occupational diseases in the beryllium industry. Washington: Atomic Energy Commission, Public and Technical Information Service (US); 1947. Bates No. NA-AEC 0112-0136.
8. Eisenbud M. An environmental odyssey: people, pollution, and politics in the life of a practical scientist. Seattle: University of Washington Press; 1991.
9. Stokinger HE. Beryllium: its industrial hygiene aspects. New York: Academic Press; 1966. Recommended hygienic limits of exposure to beryllium. In: Stokinger H, editor.
10. Egilman DS, Bagley S, Biklen M, Golub AS, Bohme SR. The beryllium “double standard” standard. Int J Health Serv. 2003;33:769–812. [PubMed] 12. Hardy HL. Beryllium case registry at Massachusetts General Hospital. Am Rev Tuberc. 1955;72:129–32. [PubMed] 13. Hall TC, Wood CH, Stoeckle JD, Tepper LB. Case data from the beryllium registry. AMA Arch Ind Health. 1959;19:100–3. [PubMed] 14. Hardy H. Beryllium case registry progress report: 1962. Arch Environ Health. 1962;5:265–8. [PubMed]
15. Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to beryllium. Washington: Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 1972. Report No. DHEW HSM 72-10268.
16. Federal Register. Vol. 40. Washington: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US); 1975. Proposed occupational safety and health standard for beryllium; p. 48815.
17. Sterner JH, Eisenbud M. Epidemiology of beryllium intoxication. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med. 1951;4:123–51.
18. Breslin AJ, Harris WB. Health protection in beryllium facilities: summary of ten years of experience. AMA Arch Ind Health. 1959;19:596–648. [PubMed]
19. Kohara T. Letter to Piper HC, Vice President, Brush Wellman. 1974 Aug 9; Director and General Manager, Personnel Department, NGK Insulators, Inc. Bates 402194–402195.
20. Shima S. Letter to Van Ordstrand HS, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. 1974 Aug 16; Bates No. TW067281.
21. Cullen MR, Kominsky JR, Rossman MD, Cherniack MG, Rankin JA, Balmes JR, et al. Chronic beryllium disease in a precious metal refinery: clinical epidemiologic and immunologic evidence for continuing risk from exposure to low level beryllium fume. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;135:201–8. [PubMed]
22. Finklea J. Memorandum to Marshall M, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US) Subject: carcinogenicity of beryllium. 1975 Sep 29;
23. Ward E, Okun A, Ruder A, Fingerhut, Steenland K. A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants. Am J Ind Med. 1992;22:885–904. [PubMed] 24. Sanderson WT, Ward EM, Steenland K, Petersen MR. Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers. Am J Ind Med. 2001;39:133–44. [PubMed] 25. Steenland K, Ward E. Lung cancer incidence among patients with beryllium disease: a cohort mortality study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83:1380–5. [PubMed] 26. MacMahon B. The epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of beryllium in humans. J Occup Med. 1994;36:15–24. [PubMed] 27. Deubner DC, Lockey JL, Kotin P, Powers MB, Miller F, Rogers AE, et al. Re: Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers. Am J Ind Med. 2001;40:284–8. [PubMed] 28. Levy PS, Roth HD, Hwang PM, Powers TE. Beryllium and lung cancer: a reanalysis of a NIOSH cohort mortality study. Inhal Toxicol. 2002;14:1003–15. [PubMed] 29. Levy PS, Roth HD, Deubner DC. Exposure to beryllium and occurrence of lung cancer: a reexamination of findings from a nested case-control study. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:96–101. [PubMed]
30. Monograph: beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry. Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1994.
31. Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program (US) Tenth report on carcinogens. 2002
32. Newman LS, Lloyd J, Daniloff E. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104(Suppl 5):937–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 33. Beryllium disease among workers in a spacecraft-manufacturing plant—California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1983;32(32):419–20. [PubMed] 34. Kreiss K, Newman LS, Mroz MM, Campbell PA. Screening blood test identifies subclinical beryllium disease. J Occup Med. 1989;31:603–8. [PubMed] 35. Mroz MM, Kreiss K, Lezotte DC, Campbell PA, Newman LS. Reexamination of the blood lymphocyte transformation test in the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;88:54–60. [PubMed] 36. Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Zhen B, Martyny JW, Newman LS. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitization and disease in nuclear workers. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148(4 Pt 1):985–91. [PubMed] 37. Kreiss K, Wasserman S, Mroz MM, Newman LS. Beryllium disease screening in the ceramics industry: blood test performance and exposure-disease relations. J Occup Med. 1993;35:267–74. [PubMed] 38. Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Newman LS, Martyny J, Zhen B. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 micrograms/m3. Am J Ind Med. 1996;30:16–25. [PubMed] 39. Stange AW, Furman FJ, Hilmas DE. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104(Suppl 5):981–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
40. Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Zhen B, Wiedemann H, Barna B. Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant. J Occup Environ Med. 1997;54:605–12.
41. Stange AW, Hilmas DE, Furman FJ, Gatliffe TR. Beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease at a former nuclear weapons facility. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001;16:405–17. [PubMed] 42. Newman LS, Mroz MM, Maier LA, Daniloff EM, Balkissoon R. Efficacy of serial medical surveillance for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant. J Occup Environ Med. 2001;43:231–7. [PubMed] 43. Henneberger PK, Cumro D, Deubner DD, Kent MS, McCawley M, Kreiss K. Beryllium sensitization and disease among long-term and short-term workers in a beryllium ceramics plant. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001;74:167–76. [PubMed] 44. Deubner D, Kelsh M, Shum M, Maier L, Kent M, Lau E. Beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease, and exposures at a beryllium mining and extraction facility. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001;16:579–92. [PubMed] 45. Sackett HM, Maier LA, Silveira LJ, Mroz MM, Ogden LG, Murphy JR, et al. Beryllium medical surveillance at a former nuclear weapons facility during cleanup operations. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:953–61. [PubMed] 46. Welch L, Ringen K, Bingham E, Dement J, Takaro T, McGowan W, et al. Screening for beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites. Am J Ind Med. 2004;46:207–18. [PubMed] 47. Schuler CR, Kent MS, Deubner DC, Berakis MT, McCawley M, Henneberger PK, et al. Process-related risk of beryllium sensitization and disease in a copper-beryllium alloy facility. Am J Ind Med. 2005;47:195–205. [PubMed] 48. Rosenman K, Hertzberg V, Rice C, Reilly MJ, Aronchick J, Parker JE, et al. Chronic beryllium disease and sensitization at a beryllium processing facility. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1366–72. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 49. Newman LS, Mroz MM, Balkissoon R, Maier LA. Beryllium sensitization progresses to chronic beryllium disease: a longitudinal study of disease risk. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:54–60. [PubMed]
50. Brush Wellman Ltd. Letter to Draper MH. 1992 Apr 3;
51. Brush Wellman. Supplementary documentation of Brush Wellman briefing outline on Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1977 Bates No. BF 0009665-9677.
52. Hanes H. Memorandum to Rozek R. Subject: environmental and government affairs. 1992 Jan 19; 1992b.
53. Powers MB, Preuss OP. Memorandum to Gulick JE. Subject: proposed program of filling need for new and accurate beryllium health and safety literature. 1987 Jan 23;
54. Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB. Beryllium: biomedical and environmental aspects. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1991.
55. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Monthly invoice to Brush Wellman. 1986 Nov 17;
56. Brandt AM. The cigarette century: the rise, fall, and deadly persistence of the product that defined America. New York: Basic Books; 2007.
57. Glantz SA, Barnes DE, Bero L, Hanauer P, Slade J, editors. The cigarette papers. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; 1996.
58. Hill and Knowlton; Marder H. Brush Wellman Inc. Letter to Gulick JE, Vice President, Planning and Administration. 1989 Feb 21; RD006548-554.
61. Asbestos Textile Institute. About the speaker: Matthew M. Swetonic. Addendum to meeting minutes for Asbestos Textile Institute general meeting. Arlington, Va: 1973. Jun 7, 1973.
62. Hill and Knowlton. Marder H. Memorandum to Bob Rozek. 1989 May 1; MD008133-8144.
63. Rozek RH. Presentation regarding governmental and environmental affairs activities. 1989 Sep 11; Vice President, Corporate Development, Brush Wellman. D101448-87.
64. Rozek RH. Health Safety and Environmental Action Plan. the Board of Directors Meeting; 1991 Jun 25; Vice President, Corporate Development, Brush Wellman. Brush Wellman, Inc. Presentation at. BF 001197-246.
65. Hanes H. Letter to Weitzman DJ, Office of Health Physics and Industrial Hygiene, Department of Energy (US) 1992 Jan 10; Vice President, Environmental and Legislative Affairs, Brush Wellman, 1992.
67. Brush Wellman. Pallum JJ. Memorandum, 1991 Dec 10: Meeting notes—December 6, 1991—BLTT program, Redraft of exhibit B: efficacy of the 2 microgram per meter standard. NR001744.
68. Department of Energy Office of Environment Safety and Health (US) Chronic beryllium disease prevention program. 1998. Fed Regist. 1998;63:66940.
69. Wambach PF, Tuggle RM. Development of an eight-hour occupational exposure limit for beryllium. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2000;15:581–7. [PubMed]
70. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (US) Board of Scientific Counselors. Report from the Subcommittee on Beryllium Research; 2002. Oct 2,
71. Kolanz M. Public testimony at the Department of Energy public hearing on proposed chronic beryllium disease prevention program. 1999 Feb 11; Director of Environmental Health and Safety, Brush Wellman, Inc.
74. Michaels D. Doubt is their product: how industry's assault on science threatens your health. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.
75. Paustenbach DJ, Madl AK, Greene JF. Identifying an appropriate occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium: data gaps and current research initiatives. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001;16:527–38. [PubMed]
76. Fed Regist. Vol. 64. Washington: Department of Energy (US); 1999. Chronic beryllium disease prevention program: final rule; p. 68854.
77. Jeffress CN. Letter to Peter Brush, Acting Assistant Secretary, Department of Energy (US) 1998 Aug 27;
78. Fed Regist. Vol. 67. Washington: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US); 2002. Occupational exposure to beryllium: request for information; pp. 70707–12.
79. Fed Regist. Vol. 72. Washington: Department of Labor (US); 2007. Semiannual regulatory agenda; p. 22827.
80. Kelleher PC, Martyny JW, Mroz MM, Maier LA, Ruttenber AJ, Young DA, et al. Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant. J Occup Environ Med. 2001;43:238–49. [PubMed] 81. Madl AK, Unice K, Brown JL, Kolanz ME, Kent MS. Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4:448–66. [PubMed]
82. Beryllium and compounds: draft threshold limit values documentation. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.2005.
83. Borak J. The beryllium occupational exposure limit: historical origin and current inadequacy. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48:109–16. [PubMed] 87. Kress K, Day GA, Schuler CR. Beryllium: a modern industrial hazard. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:259–77. [PubMed] 88. Michaels D, Monforton C. Manufacturing uncertainty: contested science and the protection of the public's health and environment. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(Suppl 1):S39–48. [PubMed]