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Thorax. 2007 October; 62(10): 923.
PMCID: PMC2094238

Authors' reply

We thank Drs Byrnes and Edwards for their comments regarding our paper1 and would certainly agree that the diagnosis of persistent bacterial bronchitis/persistent bacterial endobronchial infection can be difficult to make. However, without recognition that the condition exists, the diagnosis cannot be made. In our earlier letter (see page 921) we highlight the difficulties in reaching a correct diagnosis in a child with a chronic cough due to the limited repertoire of responses shown by the lungs when inflamed.2 Failure to identify children with persistent endobronchial infection results in a huge burden of unnecessary morbidity due to the disease and due to inappropriate treatment. In a significant proportion it probably leads to bronchiectasis, although this may take decades. Our experience is that persistent endobronchial infection in children is curable, irrespective of the CT appearance, providing there is not a significant ongoing underlying problem such as cystic fibrosis or severe immunodeficiency. Bronchiectasis is not a diagnosis; rather, it is represents a radiological finding at one end of the spectrum from normality through minor peribronchial wall thickening and patchy non‐specific changes. We have major concerns regarding the use of CT scans by those who do not understand the natural history of the disease. We have seen a number of patients who were noted to have significant quantities of secretions on bronchoscopy and a heavy growth of one or two organisms in the lavage fluid who were then largely left untreated because the CT scan did not show bronchiectasis.

The letter from Drs Byrnes and Edwards highlights the problem of using a non‐specific term such as “chronic bronchitis”. This is why we and Anne Chang's group3 have deliberately adopted the terms “persistent bacterial bronchitis/persistent bacterial endobronchial infection” which highlight the fact that this is persistent endobronchial bacterial infection and is quite distinct from adult “chronic bronchitis” associated with cigarette smoke. Many adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are plagued by recurrent/persistent bacterial endobronchial infection with the same organisms we see in children but this, as in the children, is a secondary phenomenon resulting from impaired mucocilary clearance. These patients have two ongoing pathologies—one (COPD) predisposing to acquisition of the second (persistent endobronchial bacterial infection). We would go further and speculate that the continuing symptoms and decline in lung function in a significant proportion of ex‐smokers is due to ongoing inflammation secondary to persistent endobronchial bacterial infection.

As noted above, we believe that persistent endobronchial bacterial infection is not a primary diagnosis but represents colonisation secondary to impaired clearance of the airways. This may be due to cystic fibrosis or an immunodeficiency but, most commonly, is secondary to a “hit and run” insult such as a significant viral lower respiratory tract infection or—much less commonly these days—pertussis. Other causes of impaired clearance such as mucus plugging in asthma, tracheomalacia or even pulmonary vascular congestion with congenital heart disease may allow Haemophilus influenzae in particular to colonise the lower airways.

Finally, we would wish to clarify some of the misconceptions in the letter by Drs Byrnes and Edwards. We did not say that bronchiectasis frequently resolves in those with immunodeficiency but mention that it has been reported. Patients did not take up to six courses of prolonged antibiotics to improve. This was the time taken to affect a cure and a few will take longer. As previously noted, in the vast majority of cases the cough resolves within 10–14 days on high‐dose antibiotics and failure to show a dramatic response calls the diagnosis into question. However, a small minority do take longer and occasionally do not clear even with 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, but have subsequently cleared with nebulised colistin which is active against Haemophilus. Our approach is based on the belief that the lack of a cough suggests that there is no active inflammation and that, under these conditions, the airways are healing themselves. When the typical cough returns, we aim to treat it aggressively and early until the condition resolves. We believe the main focus of research should be in how to identify the condition early in order to prevent the need for long and, in some cases, recurrent courses of antibiotics once the infection has been present for months or years.


Competing interests: None.


1. Donnelly D, Critchlow A, Everard M L. Outcomes in children treated for persistent bacterial bronchitis. Thorax 2007. 6180–84.84 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
2. Donnelly D, Critchlow A, Everard M L. Authors' reply. Thorax 2007. 62000
3. Marchant J M, Masters I B, Taylor S M. et al Evaluation and outcome of young children with chronic cough. Chest 2006. 1291132–1141.1141 [PubMed]

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