Protein U is a spore coat protein produced at the late stage of development of Myxococcus xanthus. This protein was isolated from developmental cells, and its amino-terminal sequence was determined. On the basis of this sequence, the gene for protein U (pru) was cloned and its DNA sequence was determined, revealing an open reading frame of 179 codons. The product from this open reading frame has a typical signal peptide of 25 amino acid residues at the amino terminal end, followed by protein U of 154 residues. This result indicates that protein U is produced as a secretory precursor, pro-protein U, which is then secreted across the membrane to assemble on the spore surface. This is in sharp contrast to protein S, a major spore coat protein produced early in development, which has no signal peptide, indicating that there are two distinct pathways for trafficking of spore coat proteins during the differentiation of M. xanthus.