Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. 1992 October; 174(20): 6580–6589.
PMCID: PMC207629

Branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.


The genes for biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO2118 were characterized by cloning, complementation in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, and nucleotide sequence analysis. Nine structural genes are clustered on a 12-kb DNA fragment in the order leuABCD ilvDBNCA. Upstream of these genes, the nucleotide sequence suggests the existence of regulation by transcriptional attenuation. Between the leuD and ilvD genes is an unexpected gene, encoding a protein which belongs to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Andreadis A, Hsu YP, Kohlhaw GB, Schimmel P. Nucleotide sequence of yeast LEU2 shows 5'-noncoding region has sequences cognate to leucine. Cell. 1982 Dec;31(2 Pt 1):319–325. [PubMed]
  • Bardowski J, Ehrlich SD, Chopin A. Tryptophan biosynthesis genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. J Bacteriol. 1992 Oct;174(20):6563–6570. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beltzer JP, Chang LF, Hinkkanen AE, Kohlhaw GB. Structure of yeast LEU4. The 5' flanking region contains features that predict two modes of control and two productive translation starts. J Biol Chem. 1986 Apr 15;261(11):5160–5167. [PubMed]
  • Butlin JD, Cox GB, Gibson F. Oxidative phosphorylation in Escherichia coli K12. Mutations affecting magnesium ion- or calcium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase. Biochem J. 1971 Aug;124(1):75–81. [PubMed]
  • Delorme C, Ehrlich SD, Renault P. Histidine biosynthesis genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. J Bacteriol. 1992 Oct;174(20):6571–6579. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Driver RP, Lawther RP. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the ilvGEDA operon of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J Bacteriol. 1985 Jun;162(3):1317–1319. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evans IJ, Downie JA. The nodI gene product of Rhizobium leguminosarum is closely related to ATP-binding bacterial transport proteins; nucleotide sequence analysis of the nodI and nodJ genes. Gene. 1986;43(1-2):95–101. [PubMed]
  • Felmlee T, Pellett S, Welch RA. Nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli chromosomal hemolysin. J Bacteriol. 1985 Jul;163(1):94–105. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Friden P, Newman T, Freundlich M. Nucleotide sequence of the ilvB promoter-regulatory region: a biosynthetic operon controlled by attenuation and cyclic AMP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct;79(20):6156–6160. [PubMed]
  • Friedberg D, Rosenthal ER, Jones JW, Calvo JM. Characterization of the 3' end of the leucine operon of Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;199(3):486–494. [PubMed]
  • Gemmill RM, Wessler SR, Keller EB, Calvo JM. leu operon of Salmonella typhimurium is controlled by an attenuation mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct;76(10):4941–4945. [PubMed]
  • Gilson E, Nikaido H, Hofnung M. Sequence of the malK gene in E.coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Nov 25;10(22):7449–7458. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Glaser P, Sakamoto H, Bellalou J, Ullmann A, Danchin A. Secretion of cyclolysin, the calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase-haemolysin bifunctional protein of Bordetella pertussis. EMBO J. 1988 Dec 1;7(12):3997–4004. [PubMed]
  • Gowrishankar J. Nucleotide sequence of the osmoregulatory proU operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989 Apr;171(4):1923–1931. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gribskov M, Devereux J, Burgess RR. The codon preference plot: graphic analysis of protein coding sequences and prediction of gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 11;12(1 Pt 2):539–549. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Higgins CF, Gallagher MP, Mimmack ML, Pearce SR. A family of closely related ATP-binding subunits from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Bioessays. 1988 Apr;8(4):111–116. [PubMed]
  • Higgins CF, Hiles ID, Salmond GP, Gill DR, Downie JA, Evans IJ, Holland IB, Gray L, Buckel SD, Bell AW, et al. A family of related ATP-binding subunits coupled to many distinct biological processes in bacteria. Nature. 1986 Oct 2;323(6087):448–450. [PubMed]
  • Ikawa S, Shibata T, Ando T, Saito H. Genetic studies on site-specific endodeoxyribonucleases in Bacillus subtilis: multiple modification and restriction systems in transformants of Bacillus subtilis 168. Mol Gen Genet. 1980 Feb;177(3):359–368. [PubMed]
  • Imai R, Sekiguchi T, Nosoh Y, Tsuda K. The nucleotide sequence of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene from Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Jun 25;15(12):4988–4988. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Iturriaga EA, Díaz-Mínguez JM, Benito EP, Alvarez MI, Eslava AP. Nucleotide sequence of the Phycomyces blakesleeanus leu1 gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Aug 11;18(15):4612–4612. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kagawa Y, Nojima H, Nukiwa N, Ishizuka M, Nakajima T, Yasuhara T, Tanaka T, Oshima T. High guanine plus cytosine content in the third letter of codons of an extreme thermophile. DNA sequence of the isopropylmalate dehydrogenase of Thermus thermophilus. J Biol Chem. 1984 Mar 10;259(5):2956–2960. [PubMed]
  • Kolter R, Yanofsky C. Attenuation in amino acid biosynthetic operons. Annu Rev Genet. 1982;16:113–134. [PubMed]
  • Kühnau S, Reyes M, Sievertsen A, Shuman HA, Boos W. The activities of the Escherichia coli MalK protein in maltose transport, regulation, and inducer exclusion can be separated by mutations. J Bacteriol. 1991 Apr;173(7):2180–2186. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lawther RP, Hatfield GW. Multivalent translational control of transcription termination at attenuator of ilvGEDA operon of Escherichia coli K-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Apr;77(4):1862–1866. [PubMed]
  • Lawther RP, Wek RC, Lopes JM, Pereira R, Taillon BE, Hatfield GW. The complete nucleotide sequence of the ilvGMEDA operon of Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Mar 11;15(5):2137–2155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mackey CJ, Warburg RJ, Halvorson HO, Zahler SA. Genetic and physical analysis of the ilvBC-leu region in Bacillus subtilis. Gene. 1984 Dec;32(1-2):49–56. [PubMed]
  • Mackey CJ, Zahler SA. Insertion of bacteriophage SP beta into the citF gene of Bacillus subtilis and specialized transduction of the ilvBC-leu genes. J Bacteriol. 1982 Sep;151(3):1222–1229. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marsh NJ, Duggan DE. Ordering of mutant sites in the isoleucine-valine genes of Escherichia coli by use of merogenotes derived from F 14 : a new procedure for fine-structure mapping. J Bacteriol. 1972 Feb;109(2):730–740. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Needleman SB, Wunsch CD. A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins. J Mol Biol. 1970 Mar;48(3):443–453. [PubMed]
  • Niaudet B, Jannière L, Ehrlich SD. Integration of linear, heterologous DNA molecules into the Bacillus subtilis chromosome: mechanism and use in induction of predictable rearrangements. J Bacteriol. 1985 Jul;163(1):111–120. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nohno T, Saito T, Hong JS. Cloning and complete nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli glutamine permease operon (glnHPQ). Mol Gen Genet. 1986 Nov;205(2):260–269. [PubMed]
  • Pattee PA. Genetic linkage of chromosomal tetracycline resistance and pigmentation to a purine auxotrophic marker and the isoleucine-valine-leucine structural genes in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1976 Sep;127(3):1167–1172. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Petersen JG, Holmberg S. The ILV5 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly expressed. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Dec 22;14(24):9631–9651. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Piggot PJ, Hoch JA. Revised genetic linkage map of Bacillus subtilis. Microbiol Rev. 1985 Jun;49(2):158–179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ricca E, Calvo JM. The nucleotide sequence of leuA from Salmonella typhimurium. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Mar 11;18(5):1290–1290. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roncero MI, Jepsen LP, Strøman P, van Heeswijck R. Characterization of a leuA gene and an ARS element from Mucor circinelloides. Gene. 1989 Dec 14;84(2):335–343. [PubMed]
  • Rosenthal ER, Calvo JM. The nucleotide sequence of leuC from Salmonella typhimurium. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 May 25;18(10):3072–3072. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sharp PM, Cowe E, Higgins DG, Shields DC, Wolfe KH, Wright F. Codon usage patterns in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens; a review of the considerable within-species diversity. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Sep 12;16(17):8207–8211. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Simon D, Chopin A. Construction of a vector plasmid family and its use for molecular cloning in Streptococcus lactis. Biochimie. 1988 Apr;70(4):559–566. [PubMed]
  • Skala J, Capieaux E, Balzi E, Chen WN, Goffeau A. Complete sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEU1 gene encoding isopropylmalate isomerase. Yeast. 1991 Apr;7(3):281–285. [PubMed]
  • Somers JM, Amzallag A, Middleton RB. Genetic fine structure of the leucine operon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1973 Mar;113(3):1268–1272. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Squires CH, De Felice M, Devereux J, Calvo JM. Molecular structure of ilvIH and its evolutionary relationship to ilvG in Escherichia coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Aug 11;11(15):5299–5313. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Squires CH, De Felice M, Wessler SR, Calvo JM. Physical characterization of the ilvHI operon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1981 Sep;147(3):797–804. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tanaka T. Restriction of plasmid-mediated transformation in Bacillus subtilis 168. Mol Gen Genet. 1979 Sep;175(2):235–237. [PubMed]
  • van de Guchte M, Kok J, Venema G. Gene expression in Lactococcus lactis. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1992 Feb;8(2):73–92. [PubMed]
  • Ward JB, Jr, Zahler SA. Genetic studies of leucine biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1973 Nov;116(2):719–726. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wek RC, Hatfield GW. Nucleotide sequence and in vivo expression of the ilvY and ilvC genes in Escherichia coli K12. Transcription from divergent overlapping promoters. J Biol Chem. 1986 Feb 15;261(5):2441–2450. [PubMed]
  • Wek RC, Hauser CA, Hatfield GW. The nucleotide sequence of the ilvBN operon of Escherichia coli: sequence homologies of the acetohydroxy acid synthase isozymes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Jun 11;13(11):3995–4010. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wessler SR, Calvo JM. Control of leu operon expression in Escherichia coli by a transcription attenuation mechanism. J Mol Biol. 1981 Jul 15;149(4):579–597. [PubMed]
  • Wilbur WJ, Lipman DJ. Rapid similarity searches of nucleic acid and protein data banks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Feb;80(3):726–730. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)