Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of brjcancerBJC HomepageBJC Advance online publicationBJC Current IssueSubmitting an article to BJCWeb feeds
Br J Cancer. 1996 May; 73(10): 1306–1311.
PMCID: PMC2074521

Importance of anatomical subsite in correlating risk factors in cancer of the oesophagus--report of a case--control study.


In Bangalore, cancer of the oesophagus is the third most common cancer in males and fourth most common in females with average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of 8.2 and 8.9 per 100,000 respectively. A case-control investigation of cancer of the oesophagus was conducted based on the Population-based cancer registry, Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-three cases of cancer of the oesophagus were age and sex matched with twice the number of controls from the same area, but with no evidence of cancer. Chewing with or without tobacco was a significant risk factor. In both sexes chewing was not a risk factor for cancer of the upper third of the oesophagus. Among males, non-tobacco chewing was a significant risk factor for the middle third but not for the other two segments and tobacco chewing was a significant risk factor for the lower third of the oesophagus, but not for the other two segments. Bidi smoking in males was a significant risk factor for all three segments being highest for the upper third, less for the middle third and still less for the lower third. The risk of oesophageal cancer associated with alcohol drinking was significant only for the middle third.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anantha N, Nandakumar A, Vishwanath N, Venkatesh T, Pallad YG, Manjunath P, Kumar DR, Murthy SG, Shivashankariah, Dayananda CS. Efficacy of an anti-tobacco community education program in India. Cancer Causes Control. 1995 Mar;6(2):119–129. [PubMed]
  • Jayant K, Yeole BB. Cancers of the upper alimentary and respiratory tracts in Bombay, India: a study of incidence over two decades. Br J Cancer. 1987 Dec;56(6):847–852. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jussawalla DJ, Deshpande VA. Evaluation of cancer risk in tobacco chewers and smokers: an epidemiologic assessment. Cancer. 1971 Jul;28(1):244–252. [PubMed]
  • Nandakumar A, Anantha N, Venugopal TC. Incidence, mortality and survival in cancer of the cervix in Bangalore, India. Br J Cancer. 1995 Jun;71(6):1348–1352. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Notani PN, Jayant K. Role of diet in upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Nutr Cancer. 1987;10(1-2):103–113. [PubMed]
  • Rao DN, Sanghvi LD, Desai PB. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer. Semin Surg Oncol. 1989;5(5):351–354. [PubMed]
  • Sankaranarayanan R, Duffy SW, Padmakumary G, Nair SM, Day NE, Padmanabhan TK. Risk factors for cancer of the oesophagus in Kerala, India. Int J Cancer. 1991 Oct 21;49(4):485–489. [PubMed]
  • Tuyns AJ, Péquignot G, Jensen OM. Le cancer de l'oesophage en Ille-et-Vilaine en fonction des niveaux de consommation d'alcool et de tabac. Des risques qui se multiplient. Bull Cancer. 1977;64(1):45–60. [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Cancer are provided here courtesy of Cancer Research UK