Salmonella typhimurium is a facultative intracellular pathogen, able both to invade and to survive within eukaryotic cells and to grow in various extracellular environments. To compare the bacterial responses to these disparate environments and to shed light on the nature of the intracellular environment, we have examined the pattern of protein synthesis by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The levels of approximately 40 proteins were observed to increase during growth within macrophage-like U937 cells, while approximately 100 proteins exhibited levels that were repressed relative to those of an extracellular control culture. To aid in the interpretation of these results, the patterns of proteins made by S. typhimurium exposed to various environmental conditions in the laboratory were determined. The intracellular protein pattern was then compared with each of these benchmark protein patterns. This analysis revealed that, as expected, the intracellular environment appears to impose numerous stresses on the bacteria, but unexpectedly, the macrophage-induced response was not a simple sum of the individual stress responses displayed during extracellular growth.