Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. 1993 April; 175(8): 2393–2399.
PMCID: PMC204528

Sites and gene products involved in lambdoid phage DNA packaging.


21 is a temperate lambdoid coliphage, and the genes that encode the head proteins of lambda and 21 are descended from a common ancestral bacteriophage. The sequencing of terminase genes 1 and 2 of 21 was completed, along with that of a segment at the right end of 21 DNA that includes the R4 sequence. The R4 sequence, a site that is likely involved in termination of DNA packaging, was found to be very similar to the R4 sequences of lambda and phi 80, suggesting that R4 is a recognition site that is not phage specific. DNA packaging by 21 is dependent on a host protein, integration host factor. A series of mutations in gene 1 (her mutations), which allow integration host factor-independent DNA packaging by 21, were found to be missense changes that affect predicted alpha-helixes in gp1. gp2, the large terminase subunit, is predicted to contain an ATP-binding domain and, perhaps, a second domain important for the cos-cutting activity of terminase. orf1, an open reading frame analogous in position to FI, a lambda gene involved in DNA packaging, shares some sequence identity with FI. orf1 was inactivated with nonsense and insertion mutations; these mutations were found not to affect phage growth. 21 was also not able to complement a lambda FI mutant.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Baldwin RL, Barrand P, Fritsch A, Goldthwait DA, Jacob F. Cohesive sites on the deoxyribonucleic acids from several temperate coliphages. J Mol Biol. 1966 Jun;17(2):343–357. [PubMed]
  • Bear SE, Court DL, Friedman DI. An accessory role for Escherichia coli integration host factor: characterization of a lambda mutant dependent upon integration host factor for DNA packaging. J Virol. 1984 Dec;52(3):966–972. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Becker A, Gold M. Prediction of an ATP reactive center in the small subunit, gpNu1, of the phage lambda terminase enzyme. J Mol Biol. 1988 Jan 5;199(1):219–222. [PubMed]
  • Becker A, Murialdo H. Bacteriophage lambda DNA: the beginning of the end. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jun;172(6):2819–2824. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Becker A, Murialdo H, Lucko H, Morell J. Bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging. The product of the FI gene promotes the incorporation of the prohead to the DNA-terminase complex. J Mol Biol. 1988 Feb 20;199(4):597–607. [PubMed]
  • Berg JM. Potential metal-binding domains in nucleic acid binding proteins. Science. 1986 Apr 25;232(4749):485–487. [PubMed]
  • Birnboim HC, Doly J. A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1979 Nov 24;7(6):1513–1523. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blasco MA, Lázaro JM, Bernad A, Blanco L, Salas M. Phi 29 DNA polymerase active site. Mutants in conserved residues Tyr254 and Tyr390 are affected in dNTP binding. J Biol Chem. 1992 Sep 25;267(27):19427–19434. [PubMed]
  • CAMPBELL A. Sensitive mutants of bacteriophage lambda. Virology. 1961 May;14:22–32. [PubMed]
  • Chou PY, Fasman GD. Prediction of the secondary structure of proteins from their amino acid sequence. Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol. 1978;47:45–148. [PubMed]
  • Cue D, Feiss M. Genetic analysis of mutations affecting terminase, the bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging enzyme, that suppress mutations in cosB, the terminase binding site. J Mol Biol. 1992 Nov 5;228(1):72–87. [PubMed]
  • Davidson A, Gold M. A novel in vitro DNA packaging system demonstrating a direct role for the bacteriophage lambda FI gene product. Virology. 1987 Dec;161(2):305–314. [PubMed]
  • Davidson AR, Gold M. Mutations abolishing the endonuclease activity of bacteriophage lambda terminase lie in two distinct regions of the A gene, one of which may encode a "leucine zipper" DNA-binding domain. Virology. 1992 Jul;189(1):21–30. [PubMed]
  • Delarue M, Poch O, Tordo N, Moras D, Argos P. An attempt to unify the structure of polymerases. Protein Eng. 1990 May;3(6):461–467. [PubMed]
  • Devereux J, Haeberli P, Smithies O. A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 11;12(1 Pt 1):387–395. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Feiss M, Fisher R, Siegele DA, Widner W. Bacteriophage lambda and 21 packaging specificities. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1981;64:213–222. [PubMed]
  • Feiss M, Frackman S, Momany T. Partial FI gene-independence of lambda-21 hybrid phages specifying chimeric terminases. Virology. 1988 Nov;167(1):323–325. [PubMed]
  • Feiss M, Frackman S, Sippy J. Essential interaction between lambdoid phage 21 terminase and the Escherichia coli integrative host factor. J Mol Biol. 1985 May 25;183(2):239–246. [PubMed]
  • Feiss M, Widner W, Miller G, Johnson G, Christiansen S. Structure of the bacteriophage lambda cohesive end site: location of the sites of terminase binding (cosB) and nicking (cosN). Gene. 1983 Oct;24(2-3):207–218. [PubMed]
  • Frackman S, Siegele DA, Feiss M. The terminase of bacteriophage lambda. Functional domains for cosB binding and multimer assembly. J Mol Biol. 1985 May 25;183(2):225–238. [PubMed]
  • Guo P, Peterson C, Anderson D. Initiation events in in-vitro packaging of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA-gp3. J Mol Biol. 1987 Sep 20;197(2):219–228. [PubMed]
  • Hanahan D. Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. J Mol Biol. 1983 Jun 5;166(4):557–580. [PubMed]
  • Higgins RR, Lucko HJ, Becker A. Mechanism of cos DNA cleavage by bacteriophage lambda terminase: multiple roles of ATP. Cell. 1988 Sep 9;54(6):765–775. [PubMed]
  • Hohn B. DNA sequences necessary for packaging of bacteriophage lambda DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Dec;80(24):7456–7460. [PubMed]
  • Kleina LG, Miller JH. Genetic studies of the lac repressor. XIII. Extensive amino acid replacements generated by the use of natural and synthetic nonsense suppressors. J Mol Biol. 1990 Mar 20;212(2):295–318. [PubMed]
  • Kunkel TA. Rapid and efficient site-specific mutagenesis without phenotypic selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jan;82(2):488–492. [PubMed]
  • Kypr J, Mrázek J. Lambda phage protein Nu 1 contains the conserved DNA binding fold of repressors. J Mol Biol. 1986 Sep 5;191(1):139–140. [PubMed]
  • Messing J. New M13 vectors for cloning. Methods Enzymol. 1983;101:20–78. [PubMed]
  • Miller G, Feiss M. Sequence of the left end of phage 21 DNA. J Mol Biol. 1985 May 25;183(2):246–249. [PubMed]
  • Miwa T, Matsubara K. Lambda phage DNA sequences affecting the packaging process. Gene. 1983 Oct;24(2-3):199–206. [PubMed]
  • Murgola EJ, Prather NE, Pagel FT, Mims BH, Hijazi KA. Missense and nonsense suppressors derived from a glycine tRNA by nucleotide insertion and deletion in vivo. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;193(1):76–81. [PubMed]
  • Murialdo H, Fife WL, Becher A, Feiss M, Yochem J. Bacteriophage lambda DNA maturation. The functional relationships among the products of genes Nul, A and FI. J Mol Biol. 1981 Jan 15;145(2):375–404. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PubMed]
  • Shibata H, Fujisawa H, Minagawa T. Characterization of the bacteriophage T3 DNA packaging reaction in vitro in a defined system. J Mol Biol. 1987 Aug 20;196(4):845–851. [PubMed]
  • Shinder G, Gold M. The Nul subunit of bacteriophage lambda terminase binds to specific sites in cos DNA. J Virol. 1988 Feb;62(2):387–392. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siegele DA, Frackman S, Sippy J, Momany T, Howard TM, Tilly K, Georgopoulos C, Feiss M. The head genes of bacteriophage 21. Virology. 1983 Sep;129(2):484–489. [PubMed]
  • Vieira J, Messing J. Production of single-stranded plasmid DNA. Methods Enzymol. 1987;153:3–11. [PubMed]
  • Walker JE, Saraste M, Runswick MJ, Gay NJ. Distantly related sequences in the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP-requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold. EMBO J. 1982;1(8):945–951. [PubMed]
  • Wu WF, Christiansen S, Feiss M. Domains for protein-protein interactions at the N and C termini of the large subunit of bacteriophage lambda terminase. Genetics. 1988 Jul;119(3):477–484. [PubMed]
  • Xin WN, Feiss M. The interaction of Escherichia coli integration host factor with the cohesive end sites of phages lambda and 21. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Mar 25;16(5):2015–2030. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yanisch-Perron C, Vieira J, Messing J. Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains: nucleotide sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors. Gene. 1985;33(1):103–119. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)