The cryotolerance in frozen doughs and in water suspensions of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) previously grown under various industrial conditions was evaluated on a laboratory scale. Fed-batch cultures were very superior to batch cultures, and strong aeration enhanced cryoresistance in both cases for freezing rates of 1 to 56°C min−1. Loss of cell viability in frozen dough or water was related to the duration of the dissolved-oxygen deficit during fed-batch growth. Strongly aerobic fed-batch cultures grown at a reduced average specific rate (μ = 0.088 h−1 compared with 0.117 h−1) also showed greater trehalose synthesis and improved frozen-dough stability. Insufficient aeration (dissolved-oxygen deficit) and lower growth temperature (20°C instead of 30°C) decreased both fed-batch-grown yeast cryoresistance and trehalose content. Although trehalose had a cryoprotective effect in S. cerevisiae, its effect was neutralized by even a momentary lack of excess dissolved oxygen in the fed-batch growth medium.