PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 August; 55(8): 1990–1995.
PMCID: PMC202992

Occurrence of the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea and structure of the toxin.

Abstract

Water blooms formed by potentially toxic species of cyanobacteria are a common phenomenon in the Baltic Sea in late summer. Twenty-five cyanobacterial bloom samples were collected from open and coastal waters of the Baltic Sea during 1985 to 1987, and their toxicity was determined by mouse bioassay. All of 5 bloom samples from the southern Baltic Sea, 6 of 6 from the open northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland), and 7 of 14 Finnish coastal samples were found to contain hepatotoxic cyanobacteria. Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred together in high amounts in blooms from the open-sea areas. In addition, coastal samples contained the species Anabaena lemmermannii, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Oscillatoria agardhii. Eighteen hepatotoxic N. spumigena cultures were isolated from water bloom and open-sea water samples. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of both hepatotoxic bloom samples and Nodularia strains showed a single toxic fraction. The toxin concentrations of the blooms were less than or equal to 2.4 mg/g of freeze-dried material, and those of laboratory-grown cultures were 2.5 to 8.0 mg/g of freeze-dried cells. A single toxin was isolated from three N. spumigena-containing bloom samples and three N. spumigena laboratory isolates. Amino acid analysis and low- and high-resolution fast-atom bombardment mass spectroscopy indicated that the toxin from all of the sources was a cyclic pentapeptide (molecular weight, 824) containing glutamic acid, beta-methylaspartic acid, arginine, N-methyldehydrobutyrine, and 3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-4,6-decadienoic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (905K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Botes DP, Kruger H, Viljoen CC. Isolation and characterization of four toxins from the blue-green alga, Microcystis aeruginosa. Toxicon. 1982;20(6):945–954. [PubMed]
  • Carmichael WW, Eschedor JT, Patterson GM, Moore RE. Toxicity and partial structure of a hepatotoxic peptide produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena Mertens emend. L575 from New Zealand. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Sep;54(9):2257–2263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eriksson JE, Meriluoto JA, Kujari HP, Osterlund K, Fagerlund K, Hällbom L. Preliminary characterization of a toxin isolated from the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. Toxicon. 1988;26(2):161–166. [PubMed]
  • HUGHES EO, GORHAM PR, ZEHNDER A. Toxicity of a unialgal culture of Microcystis aeruginosa. Can J Microbiol. 1958 Jun;4(3):225–236. [PubMed]
  • Krishnamurthy T, Carmichael WW, Sarver EW. Toxic peptides from freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). I. Isolation, purification and characterization of peptides from Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena flos-aquae. Toxicon. 1986;24(9):865–873. [PubMed]
  • Meriluoto JA, Eriksson JE. Rapid analysis of peptide toxins in cyanobacteria. J Chromatogr. 1988 Apr 1;438(1):93–99. [PubMed]
  • Runnegar MT, Jackson AR, Falconer IR. Toxicity of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena Mertens. Toxicon. 1988;26(2):143–151. [PubMed]
  • Watanabe MF, Oishi S, Harda K, Matsuura K, Kawai H, Suzuki M. Toxins contained in Microcystis species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Toxicon. 1988;26(11):1017–1025. [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)