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Br J Cancer. 1977 January; 35(1): 1–39.
PMCID: PMC2025310

Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. II. analysis and examples.


Part I of this report appeared in the previous issue (Br. J. Cancer (1976) 34,585), and discussed the design of randomized clinical trials. Part II now describes efficient methods of analysis of randomized clinical trials in which we wish to compare the duration of survival (or the time until some other untoward event first occurs) among different groups of patients. It is intended to enable physicians without statistical training either to analyse such data themselves using life tables, the logrank test and retrospective stratification, or, when such analyses are presented, to appreciate them more critically, but the discussion may also be of interest to statisticians who have not yet specialized in clinical trial analyses.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Armitage P, Gehan EA. Statistical methods for the identification and use of prognostic factors. Int J Cancer. 1974 Jan 15;13(1):16–36. [PubMed]
  • Heyn RM, Joo P, Karon M, Nesbit M, Shore N, Breslow N, Weiner J, Reed A, Hammond D. BCG in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 1975 Sep;46(3):431–442. [PubMed]
  • Mantel N. Evaluation of survival data and two new rank order statistics arising in its consideration. Cancer Chemother Rep. 1966 Mar;50(3):163–170. [PubMed]
  • Mathé G, Amiel JL, Schwarzenberg L, Schneider M, Cattan A, Schlumberger JR, Hayat M, De Vassal F. Active immunotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet. 1969 Apr 5;1(7597):697–699. [PubMed]
  • Peto R, Pike MC. Conservatism of the approximation sigma (O-E)2-E in the logrank test for survival data or tumor incidence data. Biometrics. 1973 Sep;29(3):579–584. [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Cancer are provided here courtesy of Cancer Research UK