PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 October; 60(10): 3752–3759.
PMCID: PMC201883

Geobacter sulfurreducens sp. nov., a hydrogen- and acetate-oxidizing dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganism.

Abstract

A dissimilatory metal- and sulfur-reducing microorganism was isolated from surface sediments of a hydrocarbon-contaminated ditch in Norman, Okla. The isolate, which was designated strain PCA, was an obligately anaerobic, nonfermentative nonmotile, gram-negative rod. PCA grew in a defined medium with acetate as an electron donor and ferric PPi, ferric oxyhydroxide, ferric citrate, elemental sulfur, Co(III)-EDTA, fumarate, or malate as the sole electron acceptor. PCA also coupled the oxidation of hydrogen to the reduction of Fe(III) but did not reduce Fe(III) with sulfur, glucose, lactate, fumarate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, succinate, yeast extract, phenol, benzoate, ethanol, propanol, or butanol as an electron donor. PCA did not reduce oxygen, Mn(IV), U(VI), nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate with acetate as the electron donor. Cell suspensions of PCA exhibited dithionite-reduced minus air-oxidized difference spectra which were characteristic of c-type cytochromes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence placed PCA in the delta subgroup of the proteobacteria. Its closest known relative is Geobacter metallireducens. The ability to utilize either hydrogen or acetate as the sole electron donor for Fe(III) reduction makes strain PCA a unique addition to the relatively small group of respiratory metal-reducing microorganisms available in pure culture. A new species name, Geobacter sulfurreducens, is proposed.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Balch WE, Fox GE, Magrum LJ, Woese CR, Wolfe RS. Methanogens: reevaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol Rev. 1979 Jun;43(2):260–296. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Balch WE, Wolfe RS. New approach to the cultivation of methanogenic bacteria: 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (HS-CoM)-dependent growth of Methanobacterium ruminantium in a pressureized atmosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Dec;32(6):781–791. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Becher B, Müller V, Gottschalk G. N5-methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin:coenzyme M methyltransferase of Methanosarcina strain Gö1 is an Na(+)-translocating membrane protein. J Bacteriol. 1992 Dec;174(23):7656–7660. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bryant MP. Commentary on the Hungate technique for culture of anaerobic bacteria. Am J Clin Nutr. 1972 Dec;25(12):1324–1328. [PubMed]
  • Caccavo F, Blakemore RP, Lovley DR. A Hydrogen-Oxidizing, Fe(III)-Reducing Microorganism from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Oct;58(10):3211–3216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Champine JE, Goodwin S. Acetate catabolism in the dissimilatory iron-reducing isolate GS-15. J Bacteriol. 1991 Apr;173(8):2704–2706. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eden PA, Schmidt TM, Blakemore RP, Pace NR. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum using polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA-specific DNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1991 Apr;41(2):324–325. [PubMed]
  • Felsenstein J. Phylogenies from molecular sequences: inference and reliability. Annu Rev Genet. 1988;22:521–565. [PubMed]
  • Francis RT, Jr, Becker RR. Specific indication of hemoproteins in polyacrylamide gels using a double-staining process. Anal Biochem. 1984 Feb;136(2):509–514. [PubMed]
  • Grahame DA. Substrate and cofactor reactivity of a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase-corrinoid enzyme complex: stepwise reduction of iron-sulfur and corrinoid centers, the corrinoid Co2+/1+ redox midpoint potential, and overall synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Biochemistry. 1993 Oct 12;32(40):10786–10793. [PubMed]
  • Hobbie JE, Daley RJ, Jasper S. Use of nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977 May;33(5):1225–1228. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lane DJ, Field KG, Olsen GJ, Pace NR. Reverse transcriptase sequencing of ribosomal RNA for phylogenetic analysis. Methods Enzymol. 1988;167:138–144. [PubMed]
  • Larsen N, Olsen GJ, Maidak BL, McCaughey MJ, Overbeek R, Macke TJ, Marsh TL, Woese CR. The ribosomal database project. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Jul 1;21(13):3021–3023. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR. Dissimilatory metal reduction. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1993;47:263–290. [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Giovannoni SJ, White DC, Champine JE, Phillips EJ, Gorby YA, Goodwin S. Geobacter metallireducens gen. nov. sp. nov., a microorganism capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of iron and other metals. Arch Microbiol. 1993;159(4):336–344. [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Phillips EJ. Novel mode of microbial energy metabolism: organic carbon oxidation coupled to dissimilatory reduction of iron or manganese. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jun;54(6):1472–1480. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Phillips EJ. Reduction of uranium by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Mar;58(3):850–856. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Phillips EJ. Reduction of Chromate by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Its c(3) Cytochrome. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Feb;60(2):726–728. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Phillips EJ. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Jul;60(7):2394–2399. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Phillips EJ, Lonergan DJ. Hydrogen and Formate Oxidation Coupled to Dissimilatory Reduction of Iron or Manganese by Alteromonas putrefaciens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Mar;55(3):700–706. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Widman PK, Woodward JC, Phillips EJ. Reduction of uranium by cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Nov;59(11):3572–3576. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lovley DR, Woodward JC, Chapelle FH. Stimulated anoxic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons using Fe(III) ligands. Nature. 1994 Jul 14;370(6485):128–131. [PubMed]
  • Murray MG, Thompson WF. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 Oct 10;8(19):4321–4325. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Olsen GJ, Matsuda H, Hagstrom R, Overbeek R. fastDNAmL: a tool for construction of phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences using maximum likelihood. Comput Appl Biosci. 1994 Feb;10(1):41–48. [PubMed]
  • Perry KA, Kostka JE, Luther GW, 3rd, Nealson KH. Mediation of sulfur speciation by a black sea facultative anaerobe. Science. 1993 Feb 5;259(5096):801–803. [PubMed]
  • Roden EE, Lovley DR. Dissimilatory Fe(III) Reduction by the Marine Microorganism Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Mar;59(3):734–742. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thamdrup B, Finster K, Hansen JW, Bak F. Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur coupled to chemical reduction of iron or manganese. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Jan;59(1):101–108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weisburg WG, Barns SM, Pelletier DA, Lane DJ. 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jan;173(2):697–703. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woese CR. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol Rev. 1987 Jun;51(2):221–271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)