3.1. Extent of Alcohol Use
Reservation youths initiated alcohol use significantly earlier by about 11 months on average (13.4[2.6] vs. 14.3[2.1], t = 2.45, df =107, p= .0160). During the lifetime period of drinking the most, one fifth (20%) of the youth drank alcohol almost every week; over one eighth (12%) drank alcohol about half the weeks in a year; one fifth (22%) drank alcohol in at least one week a month; and approximately half (44%) drank alcohol less than one week a month. Rates for drinking in the past 12 months were substantially similar to those for the period of drinking the most (See ).
3.2. Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms
Reservation youths reported significantly more lifetime alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms than urban youths (3.0[6.5], range = 0−24 vs. 1.4[4.1], range = 0−22, t = 4.13, df = 399, p <0001). In parallel, reservation youths had double the rates of lifetime alcohol abuse/dependence than urban youths (16.1% vs. 7.2%, χ2=10.88, df =1, p = .0007).
3.3. Multiple and Interactive Predictors of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms
Multiple and interactive predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms were explored using regression models without and then with interaction terms. Logarithmic transformations were performed on alcohol symptoms to improve normality (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001
Model 1 (F (8,320) = 21.93, p< .0001), containing no interactions, explained 36% of the variance in adolescent alcohol symptoms. Lower socioeconomic status of family members was related to more alcohol symptoms. After controlling for other demographics (i.e., age and location), family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities were positively associated with alcohol symptoms, while cultural pride/spirituality and religious affiliation were negatively associated with such symptoms.
The other two models explored interaction effects. The total variance explained once an interaction term was introduced increased by only one percent. Model 2 (F (9,319) = 20.79, p< .0001, R2 =. 37) revealed that, for youths with many peer misbehaviors (dichotomized in median = 10, range = 0−36), belonging to an organized religious group reduced alcohol symptoms (see for an illustration of the interaction). Similar to Model 2, Model 3 (F (9,319) = 20.01, p< .0001, R2 =. 37) showed that, for adolescents with more family members who had substance problems (dichotomized in median = 1, range = 0−2), religious attendance reduced alcohol symptoms (see for an illustration).
Role of religious affiliation in moderating the impact of misbehaving peers on alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms
Role of religious affiliation in moderating the impact of addicted family members on alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms