We are interested in characterizing the process of entry into and the maintenance of the stationary phase. To identify proteins that are induced during growth to stationary phase, we examined protein synthesis in long-term stationary-phase cultures using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Although the total rate of protein synthesis declined when growth ceased after the postdiauxic phase, the pattern of proteins synthesized remained similar throughout the experimental period (28 days), except at the diauxic shift. At the diauxic shift most proteins detectable by 2D-PAGE undergo a transient reduction in their relative rate of synthesis that ends when cells resume growth during the postdiauxic phase. We conclude from this that the transient repression of protein synthesis at the diauxic shift is not directly associated with stationary-phase arrest. A number of proteins that are synthesized after exponential phase have been identified by 2D-PAGE. These proteins could be divided into three temporal classes depending upon when their synthesis became detectable. One postexponential protein, designated p35, was induced later than all other proteins, and its relative rate of synthesis increased throughout stationary phase. Unlike most postexponential proteins, p35 was not regulated by heat shock or glucose repression. We also observed that a direct correlation between steady-state mRNA accumulation and protein synthesis for another postexponential protein (Ssa3p) or two closely related constitutive proteins (Ssa1p and Ssa2p) did not exist. We conclude from this result that synthesis of proteins in stationary phase is regulated by mechanisms other than the control of steady-state mRNA accumulation.