For neoplasms that arise in the third and fourth parts of the duodenum (D3, D4), a duodenectomy that preserves the pancreas can provide adequate tumour clearance while avoiding the additional dissection and risk of the common alternative, pancreatoduodenectomy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Pancreas-sparing distal duodenectomy (PSDD) was performed in 14 patients with infrapapillary duodenal neoplasms between 1991–2002, and the clinical outcome is reviewed. The operation entails careful separation of the lower pancreatic head from D3, complete mobilisation of the ligament of Treitz and end-to-end duodenojejunal anastomosis 1–3 cm below the major duodenal papilla.
There were 9 men and 5 women of median age 56 years, who presented with iron-deficiency anaemia (n = 8), gastric outlet obstruction (n = 4), anaemia and gastric outlet obstruction (n = 1), epigastric pain or mass (1 each). There were 11 malignant neoplasms (adenocarcinoma 5, stromal tumour 4, recurrent seminoma 1, plasmacytoma 1), 2 benign neoplasms (villous adenoma, lipoma) and 1 patient with steroid-induced ulceration. In addition to D3 and D4, resection included the distal part of D2 in 5 patients, while 4 required concomitant partial colectomy. Median operation time was 240 min and median blood loss 1197 ml, being greater for malignant than benign lesions (1500 ml versus 700 ml). There was one death from gangrenous cholecystitis, one early re-operation for anastomotic bleeding and one late re-operation for delayed gastric emptying secondary to anastomotic stricture, but no pancreatic complications. At a median follow-up of 47 months, three patients had died of recurrent disease while the other 10 were alive and well with no upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
Provided there is a minimum 1-cm clearance at the papilla, PSDD is a useful alternative to formal pancreatoduodenectomy in patients with unusual neoplasms arising from the third and fourth parts of the duodenum. Although a major undertaking in its own right, it avoids the extra time of a pancreatic resection and the extra risk of a pancreatic anastomosis.
Keywords: Pancreas-sparing distal duodenectomy, Duodenal pathology, Surgery